連接詞
Conjunctions

 


定義

連接詞是指將句子中的子句、片語或字連接起來的字。

對等連接詞(Coordinating Conjunctions)

and、but 等小而美的連接詞都是對等連接詞:

對等連接詞
and but or yet for nor so

記住:這些連接詞都少於四個英文字母。注意:thennow 都不是對等連接詞,所以我們所談論的對等連接詞在句子中的角色及標點符號都不適用於這兩個字。

當一個對等連接詞連接兩個獨立子句時,它通常 (但並非總是)用一個逗點分開:

Ulysses wants to play for UConn, but he has had trouble meeting the academic requirements.

當由對等連接詞連接的兩個獨立子句具有良好的對稱或句子簡短時,許多寫作者都省略這個逗點:

Ulysses has a great jump shot but he isn't quick on his feet.

使用逗點來分開由對等連接詞連接的兩個獨立子句時,這個逗點永遠是正確的。請參考兩個獨立子句之間的標點符號來獲得進一步的協助。

在一系列項目中,若僅最後一個項目使用 and 來連接,則 and 前面的逗點也是正確的,不過許多寫作者 (尤其是報紙)會省略最後這個逗點:

Ulysses spent his summer studying basic math, writing, and reading comprehension.

在一系列項目中,若每個項目都用對等連接詞來連接,則不用逗點:

Presbyterians and Methodists and Baptists are the prevalent Protestant congregations in Oklahoma.

  

請參考逗點的使用規則來獲得進一步的協助。逗點也跟 but 連用來表達一項對比:

This is a useful rule, but difficult to remember.

對等連接詞除連接兩個獨立子句外還具有其他連接功能,其中犖犖大者是可以在不必藉助於逗點的情況下連接兩個句子元素:

  • Hemingway and Fitzgerald are among the American expatriates of the between-the-wars era.
  • Hemingway was renowned for his clear style and his insights into American notions of male identity.
  • It is hard to say whether Hemingway or Fitzgerald is the more interesting cultural icon of his day.

在對等連接詞中,最常見的當然是 and, but, 和 or。研究和探討這三個小而美的連接詞的用法對你在了解連接詞上會有很大的幫助。下面的例句只能闡述這些連接詞的一部份意思而已。

AND

  1. 表示某個觀念與另一個觀念的時間 (前後) 順序:"Tashonda sent in her applications and waited by the phone for a response."
  2. 表示某個觀念是另一個觀念的結果:"Michael heard the weather report and promptly boarded up his house."
  3. 表示某個觀念與另一個觀念成對比 (在這種用法中通常以 but 來取代):"Juanita is brilliant and Shalimar has a pleasant personality.
  4. 表示一種錯愕,意外的相反意思 (在這種用法中有時以 yet 來取代):"Hartford is a rich city and suffers from many symptoms of urban blight."
  5. 表示某個子句附屬於另一個子句 (第一個子句通常是祈使句):"Use your credit cards frequently and you'll soon find yourself deep in debt."
    這是一種含有假設意思的用法,上面的句子等於 "If you use your credit cards frequently, and...."
  6. 表示一種對第一個子句的「評論、發表意見」:"Charlie became addicted to gambling -- and that surprised no one who knew him."

BUT

  1. 鑑於第一個子句的敘述,表示一種意料之外的對比:"Joey lost a fortune in the stock market, but he still seems able to live quite comfortably."
  2. 以肯定的敘述來表示句子先前的部分係在做否定的暗示 (有時以 on the contrary 來取代):"The club never invested foolishly, but used the services of a sage investment counselor."

OR

  1. 表示只有一個可能性可能實現,排除另一個可能性:"You can study hard for this exam or you can fail."
  2. 表示所有選擇方案的組合:"We can broil chicken on the grill tonight, or we can just eat leftovers."
  3. 表示對第一個子句的改良、做更精確的敘述:"Smith College is the premier all-women's college in the country, or so it seems to most Smith College alumnae."
  4. 表示對句子先前部分的「修改」或以不同的方式重述:"There are no rattlesnakes in this canyon, or so our guide tells us."
  5. 表示一種否定的情況:"The New Hampshire state motto is the rather grim "Live free or die."
  6. 在不使用祈使句的情況下,表示否定的選擇 (參見上面 and 的用法):"They must approve his political style or they wouldn't keep electing him mayor."

注意 so 這個連接詞。它有時可以跟一個逗點來連接兩個獨立子句,但有時則不行。例如,讓我們來看看這個句子:

Soto is not the only Olympic athlete in his family, so are his brother, sister, and his Uncle Chet.

這裡 so 的意思是「也」(as well) 或「此外」(in addition),大多數謹慎的寫作者都會在兩個獨立子句之間使用分號。在下面的句子中 -- 這裡 so 的意思是「因此」(thus) -- 這個連接詞和逗點就用對了:

Soto has always been nervous in front of large gatherings, so it is no surprise that he avoids crowds of his adoring fans.

附屬連接詞(Subordinating Conjunctions)

附屬連接詞 (有時稱為從屬字) 位在附屬子句的開頭來使附屬子句與主要子句之間建立關係,並使附屬子句變成其意義仰賴主要子句而定的句子元素。

  • He took to the stage as though he had been preparing for this moment all his life.
  • Because he loved acting, he refused to give up his dream of being in the movies.
  • Unless we act now, all is lost.

注意:在下表中,若干附屬連接詞 -- after, before, since -- 也是介系詞,但做連接詞時,它們被用來引導一個子句,並使其後的子句附屬於句子中的獨立元素。

常見的附屬連接詞

after
although
as
as if
as long as
as though
because
before
even if
even though
if
if only
in order that
now that
once
rather than
since
so that
than
that
though
till
unless
until
when
whenever
where
whereas
wherever
while

相關連接詞(Correlative Conjunctions)

有些連接詞與其他字結合來形成所謂的相關連接詞。它們總是成雙成對,將在文法上應以對稱來處理的不同句子元素連接起來;換言之,相關連接詞兩邊的文法關係必須對稱。

  • She led the team not only in statistics but also by virtue of her enthusiasm.
  • Polonius said, "Neither a borrower nor a lender be."
  • Whether you win this race or lose it doesn't matter as long as you do your best.

相關連接詞有時會在平行結構中產生問題。請按這裡一下來看看平行結構可能產生的問題,及如何修正這些問題。以下為常見的相關連接詞的列表。

both . . . and
not only . . . but also
not . . . but
either . . . or
neither . . . nor
whether . . . or
as . . . as

連接詞副詞(Conjunctive Adverbs)

連接詞副詞如 however, moreover, nevertheless, consequently, as a result 被用來產生兩個觀念之間的複雜關係。
 

Guide to Grammar and Writing