Included, including 和 inclusive (of)

Included 是形容詞,意為「包括在內的;被包括的」,用在名詞和代名詞之後。例如:All of us, me included, are teachers. (包括我在內,我們都是老師)。

Including 是介系詞,意為「(其中) 包括」,用在名詞和代名詞之前。例如:All of us are teachers, including me. (包括我在內,我們都是老師/我們都是老師,其中包括我在內);I’m ordering some extra office equipment, including a new printer. (我即將訂購一些額外的辦公室設備,包括一台新的印表機)。

Inclusive 是形容詞,意為「包括在內的」,用在名詞和代名詞之後。例如:The rent is NTD 6,000 inclusive. (包括水電等一切費用在內,房租為台幣6000元)。Inclusive 後面常接 of,此時其用法與 including 等量齊觀。例如:All of us are teachers, including me. = All of us are teachers, inclusive of me.

值得注意的是,在英式英語中,inclusive 經常被用來表示「所有數目或首末兩日包括在內的」意思,如 Monday to Friday inclusive (從星期一到星期五,首尾兩天 — 即星期一和星期五 — 包括在內),但美式英語則使用 through 來表達 inclusive 的意思,如 Monday through Friday (從星期一到星期五,首尾兩天 — 即星期一和星期五 — 包括在內)。

Included, including 和 inclusive (of) 的相反詞分別為 excluded, excluding 和 exclusive (of),用法相同,只是意思變成相反的「除…之外;不包括」。再舉數例來說明它們的用法 (請注意它們在句中的位置):

All on the plane were lost, including the crew. (包括機組人員在內,機上所有人都失蹤了)
= All on the plane were lost, the crew included.
= All on the plane were lost, inclusive of the crew.
= Including the crew, all on the plane were lost.

The hotel charges $5,000 a day, excluding meals. (這家飯店一天索費5000元,其中並不包括三餐)
= The hotel charges $5,000 a day, meals excluded.
= The hotel charges $5,000 a day, exclusive of meals.

All of us, me included, were invited. (包括我在內,我們所有人都受到邀請)
= All of us, including me, were invited.
= They invited all of us, inclusive of me.

The rent is $10,000 inclusive. (包括一切費用在內,房租為10000元)
= The rent is $10,000 inclusive of everything.

Doubt 的用法

Doubt 可當名詞和動詞用,當名詞時意為「疑惑;懷疑」,當動詞時意為「懷疑;不大相信,認為…未必可能」。

Doubt 用法的主要問題在於其後該用那個介系詞或連接詞。doubt 當名詞用時,它絕大部分都是接 about,如 I have my doubts about his plan. (我對他的計畫存有疑慮)。在否定結構中,doubt 無論當名詞或動詞用,其後若接子句,只能接由連接詞 “that” 所引導的名詞子句,如 There is no doubt in my mind that he is telling the truth. 或 I don’t doubt (= I am certain) that he is telling the truth. (我毫不懷疑他在講真話)。而在其他大多數結構中,其後通常接由連接詞 “whether/if” (有些人也使用 that) 所引導的名詞子句,如 I doubt whether/if he is telling the truth. (我不相信他在講真話) — 在口語中,if 比 whether 用得多。

最後要提的是 doubt 在一句大家耳熟能詳的法律用語中的應用:

To give somebody the benefit of the doubt:在沒有證據證明某人有罪之前,應假定他是無罪的。
To give something the benefit of the doubt:在沒有證據證明某事不當之前,應假設它是可行的。

Kangaroo 和 tomato 的複數

我們知道,字尾為字母 o 的名詞,它們的複數是在 o 的後面加上 s 或 es,那麼要如何判斷各該名詞是要加 s 還是 es 呢? 一般而言,若一個名詞的字尾是兩個 o,即母音字母 o 加 o (或其他母音字母加 o),則其複數是在字尾加上 s,如 kangaroo → kangaroos、zoo → zoos、studio → studios;若字尾只有一個 o,即一個子音字母加 o,則其複數是在字尾加上 es,如 tomato → tomatoes、veto → vetoes,但 piano 和 photo 等少數名詞例外,其複數分別為 pianos 和 photos。

Fit, match 和 suit 之不同

這三個字表面上都有「適合」、「與…相稱」的意思,但實質的意義卻有很大的出入。

Fit 是指合身,尺寸相符。例如:These shoes don’t fit me – they are too small. (這雙鞋子不適合我穿 — 它們太小了);This dress doesn’t fit me. (這件衣服我穿起來不合身)。

Match 是指搭配,相配。例如:Her handbag matches her shoes well. (她的包包和她的鞋子很搭配);The color of the shirt does not match that of the tie. (襯衫的顏色跟領帶的顏色不搭配)。

Suit 是指適合某人的外表、個性等。例如:Dark colors suit her best (深顏色最適合他);This dress suits him beautifully. (這件衣服他穿非常合適 — 如適合他的外表或個性等)。

Consider 還是 consider as 呢?

Consider 的主要意思有三:

第一義是「認為,把…視為」(句型為:consider + 受詞 + 名詞/形容詞)。例如:Do you consider her suitable for the job? (你認為她適合做這份工作嗎?)。

第二義是「考慮,細想」。例如:We will not fail to consider your feelings on the matter. (我們不會不考慮你對這件事情的感受)。

第三義是「考慮到;考慮過」。例如:I have considered all aspects of the problem. (我已考慮過這問題的所有層面)。

由於第一義與 regard as 和 view as 同義,所以當 consider意為「認為,把…視為」時,就不可在其後加上 as (但若意為「考慮」,則可加上 as),但可加上 “to be” (可省略):

I consider it (to be) a great honor to be invited to join the club. (我認為被邀請加入此俱樂部是很大的榮幸) (正)
I consider it as a great honor to be invited to join the club. (誤)

最後要提的是,consider 後面若接動詞,須用動名詞而非不定詞:

I’m considering changing my job. (我正考慮換工作) (正)
I’m considering to change my job. (誤)

Allow, ask, cost…等動詞只能接雙受詞

在「Buy 接雙受詞的限制」一文中,我們知道 buy (以及 catch, choose, cook, find, get, make, order 等動詞) 可以接雙受詞 (動詞 + 間接受詞 + 直接受詞) 也可以使用 “動詞 + 直接受詞 + for + 間接受詞” 的結構。另外,有些可以接雙受詞的動詞 (如give, hand, lend, offer, ,tell, promise, pass, show, teach 等),則是還可以使用 “動詞 + 直接受詞 + to + 間接受詞” 的結構。例如:He gave me ten dollars./He gave ten dollars to me. (他給我 10 塊錢)。

然而,allow, ask, cost, deny, envy, forgive, permit 和 refuse 等動詞只能接雙受詞,不能有 for/to + 間接受詞的結構。事實上,知道這幾個動詞可以接雙受詞的人並不多,而知道它們可以接雙受詞且不能有 for/to + 間接受詞結構的人肯定更少。現在讓我們來看一些例句:

My mother allows me money for books. (我母親給我錢買書) (正)
My mother allows money to me for books. (誤)

You have asked me a difficult question which I cannot answer. (你問了一個我無法回答的困難問題) (正)
You have asked a difficult question to me which I cannot answer. (誤)

It cost them a lot of money. (那花了他們很多錢) (正)
It cost a lot of money to them. (誤)

I envy you your large detached house in the country. (我羨慕你在鄉下有間獨棟大房子) (正)
I envy your large detached house in the country for you. (誤)

He forgave her the awful things she said about him. (他原諒她說了他的壞話) (正)
He forgave the awful things she said about him for her. (誤)

Buy 接雙受詞的限制

我們都知道,buy 以及一些動詞可以接雙受詞,其句型為:buy + 間接受詞 (人) + 直接受詞 (物),如 “She bought me a drink.” (她給我買了一份飲料)。這一句亦可寫成 “She bought a drink for me.” 然而,如果間接受詞是物而不是人,那麼我們就不能使用雙受詞的句型。例如:

He bought the office a new table. (他為辦公室買了一張新辦公桌) (誤)
He bought a new table for the office. (正)

For 和 in 的時間用法

在 first, only 和否定詞或最高級之後,英式英語使用 for,而美式英語可能使用 in + 時間。例如:

It was the first time I saw her cry in (英式英語用 for) many years. (這是多年來我第一次看到她在哭)
It was the worst disaster in (英式英語用 for) months. (這是幾個月來最嚴重的災難)
I hadn’t eaten a good meal in (英式英語用 for) a long time. (我好久沒有吃過一頓豐盛的飯了)

如何區分 apparent 兩個不同的意思

Apparent 這個形容詞有兩個意思:一是「表面 (上) 的;似乎的」,另一是「顯然的;顯而易見的」。當 apparent 位在名詞前面來修飾該名詞時,它意為「表面 (上) 的;似乎的」,若位在 be 動詞或其他連綴動詞的後面當主詞補語,則意為「顯然的;顯而易見的」。請看下面的例句:

The teacher was shocked by the parents’ apparent lack of concern about their child’s behavior. (老師感到震驚的是那孩子的父母親似乎毫不關心自己小孩的行為表現)
Their apparent grief soon turned to laughter. (他們表面上的哀傷立即轉為笑臉)
It was apparent that he was in no condition to travel. (他的健康狀況顯然不宜旅行)
The reasons for her sudden departure soon became apparent. (她突然離去的原因不久就一清二楚了)

Apparent 的副詞 apparently 也是這兩個意思。若位在句首,它可能意為「表面上;似乎,看來」或「顯然地;顯而易見地」;若位在句中,尤其是位在 be 動詞後面修飾另一副詞時,它大多意為「顯然地;顯而易見地」。請看下面的例句:

Apparently he did not succeed. (看來他沒有成功)
Apparently she never got my letter after all. (顯然她一直都沒有收到我的信)
He was apparently much surprised at the news. (他對那消息顯然十分驚訝)

極限形容詞的「最高程度」和「接近最高程度」

英文中有些形容詞是不可分等級的,因為其含義已包括了極限的意思,所以它們沒有比較級和最高級的形式。有些人稱之為極限形容詞 (limit adjectives),如 empty, impossible, perfect, unique 等等。

不過,我們還是可以在其前面加上 absolutely, completely, quite, thoroughly, totally, utterly, wholly 等副詞來表達「最高程度」。例如:

That’s completely (or thoroughly, totally, wholly…) impossible. (那是完全不可能的)
They were absolutely speechless. (他們簡直連一句話都說不出來)

再者,我們也可以使用 almost, nearly, practically, virtually 等副詞來表達「接近最高程度」。例如:

The classroom was virtually empty. (教室已幾乎空無一人)
It’s almost impossible to say that I love you. (要說我愛你幾乎是不可能的)

此外,amazed, amazing, disgusting, surprised, surprising, terrified, terrifying 等表示情緒反應的分詞形容詞也是屬於極限形容詞,所以也沒有比較級和最高級的形式。同樣地,我們可以在其前加上 absolutely, completely, quite, thoroughly, totally, utterly, wholly 等副詞來表達「最高程度」,如 utterly amazed (非常吃驚)、absolutely disgusting (討厭至極)、completely terrified (十分震驚)。然而,我們卻不能在這些分詞形容詞前面加上 almost, nearly, practically, virtually 等副詞來表達「接近最高程度」。