# 「如上所述」、「如前所述」是 as stated above，不是 as stated before

• As stated above, there is no shortcut for learning English grammar. (如上所述，學習英文文法沒有捷徑) (正)
• As stated before, there is no shortcut for learning English grammar. (誤)

• As noted above, the government lacks efficiency. (如上面所指出的，這個政府缺乏效率) (正)
• As noted before, the government lacks efficiency. (誤)