語氣助動詞 – Can

Can 是英文最常用的語氣助動詞之一,它可用來表示能力、機會、請求、允許或可能性。

例句:

  • I can drive a tourist bus. (我會開遊覽車) - 能力
  • We can stay with my brother-in-law when we are in Tokyo. (我們在東京時可以住在我姊夫家裡) - 機會
  • Mary cannot stay out after 10 PM. (晚上十點過後,瑪麗就不可以在外逗留) - 允許
  • Can you pass me the salt? (你可以把鹽巴遞給我嗎?) - 請求
  • Any child can grow up to be president. (任何小孩長大後都有可能成為總統) - 可能性

Can 的現在、過去和未來時態用法

大多數語氣助動詞的過去和未來時態都相當不規則。下表為 can 在不同上下文中的用法說明。

Can 的用法肯定句否定句你也可以用
一般能力現在:I can speak Korean. (我會說韓文)
過去:Can 變成 could
I could speak Korean when I was a child. (小時候我會說韓文)
未來:Can 變成 be able to
I will be able to speak Korean after I come back from South Korea. (我從南韓回來後就會說韓文了)
現在:I can't speak Korean. (我不會說韓文)
過去:Can 變成 could
I couldn't speak Korean when I was a child. (小時候我不會說韓文)
未來:Can 變成 be able to
I still won't be able to speak Korean after I come back from South Korea. (我從南韓回來後還是不會說韓文)
be able to
特定能力 (短暫或一時的能力)現在:In an emergency, some people can jump over a high wall. (緊急時,有些人能跳過高牆)
過去:Can 變成 be able to
In an emergency, some people were able to jump over a high wall. (緊急時,有些人能跳過高牆)
未來:Can 變成 be able to
In an emergency, some people will be able to jump over a high wall. (緊急時,有些人能跳過高牆)
現在:Even in an emergency, some people still can't jump over a high wall. (即使在緊急時,有些人還是不能跳過高牆)
過去:Can 變成 be able to
Even in an emergency, some people still weren't able to jump over a high wall. (即使在緊急時,有些人還是不能跳過高牆)
未來:Can 變成 be able to
Even in an emergency, some people still won't be able to jump over a high wall. (即使在緊急時,有些人還是不能跳過高牆)
be able to
機會現在:I have some free time. I can teach you English conversation now. (我有一些空閒時間。現在我可以教你英文會話)
過去:Can 變成 be able to
I had some free time yesterday. I was able to teach you English conversation at that time. (昨天我有一些空閒時間。當時我可以教你英文會話)
未來:I'll have some free time tomorrow. I can teach you English conversation then. (明天我有一些空閒時間。屆時我可以教你英文會話)
現在:I don't have any time. I can't teach you English conversation now. (我沒有任何時間。現在我不能教你英文會話)
過去:Can 變成 be able to
I didn't have time yesterday. I wasn't able to teach you English conversation at that time. (昨天我沒有時間。當時我不能教你英文會話)
未來:I won't have any time tomorrow. I can't teach you English conversation then. (明天我沒有任何時間。屆時我不能教你英文會話)
be able to
允許現在:Kevin can drive my car when I take a business trip to China. (我到中國出差時,凱文可以開我的車)
過去:Can 變成 be allowed to
Kevin was allowed to drive my car while I took a business trip to China last week. (上週我到中國出差時,我允許凱文開我的車)
未來:Kevin can drive my car while I take a business trip to China next week. (下週我到中國出差時,凱文可以開我的車)
現在:Kevin can't drive my car when I take a business trip to China. (我到中國出差時,凱文不許開我的車)
過去:Can 變成 be allowed to
Kevin wasn't allowed to drive my car while I took a business trip to China last week. (上週我到中國出差時,我不允許凱文開我的車)
未來:Kevin can't drive my car while I take a business trip to China next week. (下週我到中國出差時,凱文不許開我的車)
may
請求Can I have a cup of coffee please? (可以給我一杯咖啡嗎?)
Can you help me with my homework? (你能教我做功課嗎?)

請求通常指不久的將來。
Can't I have a cup of coffee? (能不能給我一杯咖啡呢?)
Can't you help me with my homework? (你不能教我做功課嗎?)

請求通常指不久的將來。
could, may
可能性You can become very rich if you work 18 hours every day. (如果你每天工作 18 小時,你可能變得非常有錢)
Eating too much can shorten your life. (吃太多可能縮短壽命)

這項用法通常是一種概括性的假定或推測。
He can't be your classmate. I think he is your teacher. (他不可能是你的同班同學。我以為他是你的老師)
Helen can't be 40! I thought she was about 20 years old. (海倫不可能 40 歲!我以為她大約 20 歲左右)

這項用法通常是一種概括性的假定或推測。
could
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