語氣助動詞 – Could

Could 可用來表示可能性、過去的能力、請求或建議。Could 係 can 在條件句中的用字,經常用於條件句。

例句:

  • I could attend your wedding ceremony. (我可能參加你的婚禮) - 可能性
  • Bill could swim the butterfly stroke by the age of 10. (比爾 10 歲之前會游蝶式) - 過去的能力
  • Could I borrow some money from you to eat out with my girlfriend? (我可以向你借一些錢帶我女朋友外出用餐嗎?) - 請求
  • You could go out with Mary instead. (你可以改跟瑪麗約會) - 建議
  • If you went to Egypt, you could learn Arabic. (如果你去埃及,你就可以學阿拉伯語) - 現在非事實條件句 (與現在事實相反的條件句)

Could 的現在、過去和未來時態用法

大多數語氣助動詞的過去和未來時態都相當不規則。下表為 could 在不同上下文中的用法說明。

Could 的用法肯定句否定句你也可以用
可能性現在:Tony could be the one who robbed the bank. (東尼可能是搶銀行的人)
過去:Tony could have been the one who robbed the bank. (東尼可能是搶銀行的人)
未來:Tony could go to jail for robbing the bank. (東尼可能因搶銀行而入獄)
現在:Tony couldn't be the one who robbed the bank. (東尼不可能是搶銀行的人)
過去:Tony couldn't have been the one who robbed the bank. (東尼不可能是搶銀行的人)
未來:Tony couldn't possibly go to jail for robbing the bank. (東尼可能不會因搶銀行而入獄)
might, may
Can 在條件句中的用字現在:If I had more money, I could travel around the world. (如果我有更多的錢,我就可以去環遊世界)
過去:If I had had more money, I could have traveled around the world. (如果我有更多的錢,我就可以去環遊世界)
未來:If I had more money next year, I could travel around the world. (如果明年我有更多的錢,我就可以去環遊世界)
現在:Even if I had more money, I couldn't travel around the world. (即使我有更多的錢,我也不能去環遊世界)
過去:Even if I had had more money, I couldn't have traveled around the world. (即使我有更多的錢,我也不能去環遊世界)
未來:Even if I had more money next year, I couldn't travel around the world. (即使明年我有更多的錢,我也不能去環遊世界)
建議現在:沒有現在式。
過去:You could have gone on a day trip to Hualien. (你們可以去花蓮一日遊)
未來:You could go on a day trip to Hualien. (你們可以去花蓮一日遊)
沒有否定型態。
過去的能力I could run ten kilometers in my early twenties. (我二十出頭時可以跑一萬公尺)
I could speak Korean when I was a child. (小時候我會說韓文)

Could 在表示短暫或一時的能力時不可用於肯定句。

I could jump over a high wall yesterday. (昨天我能跳過高牆) (誤)
I couldn't run more than a kilometer in my early twenties. (我二十出頭時不能跑超過一千公尺)
I couldn't speak Korean when I was a child. (小時候我不會說韓文)

Could 在表示短暫或一時的能力時可以用於否定句。

I couldn't jump over a high wall yesterday. (昨天我不能跳過高牆) (正)
be able to
禮貌性請求Could I have a cup of coffee? (可以給我一杯咖啡嗎?)
Could you give me a discount if I buy a whole case of beer? (如果我買一整箱啤酒,你能給我打個折嗎?)

請求通常指不久的將來。
Couldn't Mary attend my birthday party? (瑪麗不能來參加我的生日派對嗎?)
Couldn't you help me with my homework? (你不能教我做功課嗎?)

請求通常指不久的將來。
can, may, might

注意:“Could not” 和 “Might not” 的意思並不相同。Could not 意為「不可能」,而 Might not 意為「可能不;也許不」。

例句:

  • Cindy could not know how to solve the problem. (辛蒂不可能知道這問題的解決辦法)
  • Cindy might not know how to solve the problem. (辛蒂可能不知道這問題的解決辦法)
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