語氣助動詞簡介

語氣助動詞 (modals or modal auxiliaries) 或稱情態助動詞或情態動詞 (modal verbs) 是英文的特殊動詞,目前常用的語氣助動詞有 can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will 和 would。它們的用法與一般或普通動詞有極大的不同。下列為其中三項重要的差異:

1. 語氣助動詞第三人稱不加 s。

例句:

  • Allen can speak Japanese, Korean, and Russian. (艾倫會說日文、韓文和俄文)
  • She should be here by 10:00. (她應該在 10 點之前到這裡)

2. 語氣助動詞直接加 not 來變成否定,即使用於簡單現在式和簡單過去式亦然。

例句:

  • They should not be late. (他們不應該遲到)
  • She might not come to my birthday party. (她可能不來參加我的生日派對)

3. 語氣助動詞沒有動詞三態變化且不可連用。

例句:

  • Cindy musted work very hard. (辛蒂必須努力工作) (誤)
  • Gary will can go with us. (蓋瑞將可跟我們一起去) (誤)

語氣助動詞的主要句型如下:

語氣助動詞簡單式

  • John could swim at the beach. (約翰可能在海邊游泳)

語氣助動詞進行式

  • John could be swimming at the beach right now. (約翰現在可能正在海邊游泳)

語氣助動詞完成式

  • John could have swum at the beach yesterday. (約翰昨天可能在海邊游泳)

語氣助動詞完成進行式

  • John could have been swimming at the beach instead of working in the office. (約翰可能一直在海邊游泳,沒有在辦公室裡工作)

語氣助動詞被動簡單式

  • The living room should be cleaned once a day. (客廳應該每天清掃一次)

語氣助動詞被動進行式

  • The living room should be being cleaned now. (客廳現在應該正在清掃中)

語氣助動詞被動完成式

  • The living room should have been cleaned yesterday. (客廳昨天原本應該清掃 - 但沒有清掃)

語氣助動詞被動完成進行式

  • The living room should have been being cleaned but nobody was there. (客廳原本應該正在清掃中,但沒有人在那裡) - 這種句型非常罕見。
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