語氣助動詞 – Ought To

Ought to 係用來表示勸告、建議的「應該」。它亦可用來表示假設、預期以及高度可能性 (或然率) 的「應該」,這通常含有某人該得或應得某物或某事的概念。Ought to 的否定式為 “Ought not to” (否定式的 to 可以省略),係用來勸告 (某人) 不要做某事,不過美國人比較喜歡使用較不正式的 should not 或 had better not。Ought not 可以縮略為 oughtn’t。

Ought to 的過去式是 ought to have + P.P.,主要在表達與過去事實相反的情況,如 You ought to have/should have helped him. (你本來應該幫助他的 - 但實際上卻沒有)。過去式的否定也是在 ought 的後面加上 not,如 You ought not (to) have/should not have helped him. (你本來不該幫助他的 - 但實際上卻伸出了援手);He ought not (to) have done so. (他本來不該這麼做的 - 但實際上卻做了)。

例句:

  • You ought to give up smoking. (你應該戒煙) - 勸告、忠告
  • We ought to go swimming on weekends. (我們應該每週末游泳) - 建議
  • Their meeting ought to be over now. (他們的會議現在該結束了) - 預期、可能性 (我預計會議應該結束了)
  • Tony ought to get the promotion. (東尼該獲得擢升) - 預期、可能性 (預料東尼會獲得擢升,而晉升是他應得的)
  • Sam ought not (to) eat so much. (山姆不該吃這麼多) - 勸告不要做某事

Ought to 的現在、過去和未來時態用法

大多數語氣助動詞的過去和未來時態都相當不規則。下表為 ought to 在不同上下文中的用法說明。

Ought to 的用法肯定句否定句你也可以用
勸告、建議現在:Susan ought to exercise more. (蘇珊應該多運動)
過去:Susan ought to have exercised more so she would be better prepared for the marathon. (蘇珊應該多運動,這樣她才能為這項馬拉松做較佳的準備)
未來:Susan ought to go jogging with us tonight. (蘇珊今晚應該跟我們去慢跑)
現在:Susan ought not (to) exercise too much. It might cause injury. (蘇珊不該做太多運動。那可能導致受傷)
過去:Susan ought not (to) have run marathon. She wasn't in good shape. (蘇珊不該跑馬拉松。她的身體狀況不佳)
未來:Susan ought not (to) stay at home in front of the TV. She should go jogging with us tonight. (蘇珊不該留在家裡看電視。她今晚應該跟我們去慢跑)
should
假設、預期、可能性現在:Ivan ought to be home at 7 o'clock today. (艾凡今天七點鐘應該回家了)
過去:Mary ought to have received my package by now. (瑪麗現在應該已經收到我的包裹了)
未來:Mary ought to receive my package tonight. (瑪麗今晚應該會收到我的包裹)
Ought not 主要用來勸告 (某人) 不要做某事。(請見上面的例句)should

注意:“Ought to” 的否定式為 “Ought not to”,其中 to 大多省略。Ought not 及其縮略形式 oughtn’t 主要為英式英語用法,在英國用得非常頻繁,但在美式英語中卻非常少用,美國人偏愛 should not。

例句:

  • You ought not (to) drink so much. (你不該喝這麼多)
  • You oughtn’t (to) go out with Amy because she isn’t a good girl. (你不該和艾美交往,因為她不是好女孩)
  • Gary ought not (to) have made so much noise last night. (蓋瑞昨晚不該那麼吵)
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