英文列舉方式知多少?

寫作時經常需要列舉 (enumerate or enumeration),如第一、第二、第三…等等。列舉具有提綱挈領、段落分明的效果。英文的列舉方式有幾種呢? 答案是有很多種,但最常用的有下列幾種:

1. First, …second, …third;
2. Firstly, …secondly, …thirdly, …(lastly);
3. First, …next, …last;
4. (美式英語) First of all, …second of all, …thirdly, …(lastly);

由於早期有些字典並無 firstly 這個字,因此有人認為第2項的列舉方式應寫成”First, …secondly, …thirdly, …(lastly)”,但在現代英語中,這兩種列舉方式都可以,亦即使用 first 或 firstly 皆可,這可由「牛津英語大辭典」(OED) 把這兩種方式都列出得到證明;此外,”The New Fowler’s Modern English Usage” 一書的作者 R.W. Burchfield 在書中提到,他慣用的列舉方式是 “First, …secondly, …thirdly, …”。

與 detail 有關的三個實用句型

寫作時,許多人都會寫到「某某事會在下一節或下一段詳細敘述」,此時就會用到 detail 這個字或其字形變化,因而形成三個非常實用的句型;它們分別是「某某事 + will be described in detail…」、「The details of 某某事 + will be described …」和「A detailed description of 某某事 + will be given…」。請大家務必熟記這三個歷久彌新、使用率超高的句型,將會受用無窮。譬如說,某某事就是前第一家庭的國際洗錢活動,那麼這三個句型的寫法如下:

  1. The international money laundering operations involving the former first family will be described in detail in the next paragraph. (前第一家庭的國際洗錢活動將在下一段詳細敘述)
  2. The details of the international money laundering operations involving the former first family will be described in the next paragraph.
  3. A detailed description of the international money laundering operations involving the former first family will be given in the next paragraph.

第1句也可改寫成下句,意思相同,亦同樣相當常用:

The international money laundering operations involving the former first family will be fully described in the next paragraph.

“S + V…, and that …” 的強調句型

這個強調句型雖不若 “It is/was + 被強調部分 + that 子句”來得常見,但用起來也是簡潔有力,擲地有鏗鏘之聲,語氣加強效果十分顯著。句中的 that 代替前面全部或部份句子,而 “and that” 意為「而且」。請看下面的例句:

  • All people seek after happiness, and that without any exception. (所有人都在追求幸福和快樂,而且沒有例外)
  • They fulfilled the task, and that in a few days. (他們完成了工作,而且是在幾天內就完成了)
  • I gave her some presents, and that the day before yesterday. (我給了她一些禮物,而且是在前天給的)

Approach, discuss 和 lack 這三個動詞有什麼關係呢?

老實說,這三個動詞一點關係也沒有,但它們有一共通點,那就是它們都是及物動詞,後面直接接受詞,不可以接介系詞再接受詞。英文中有許多這樣的動詞,這裡只是以這三個我們常見但經常用錯的動詞作代表。總之,當 approach, discuss 和 lack 做及物動詞用時,那麼 approach to + 受詞,discuss about + 受詞,lack of + 受詞的寫法都是錯的。例如:

Silently we approached the enemy’s camp. (正)
Silently we approached to the enemy’s camp. (誤)
(我們悄悄地逼近敵人的營地)
He’s approaching 70. (正)
He’s approaching to 70. (誤)
(他快70歲了)

She discussed her study plan with her mother. (正)
She discussed about her study plan with her mother. (誤)
(她和母親討論她的讀書計畫)
Mr. Wang refused to discuss the matter. (正)
Mr. Wang refused to discuss about the matter. (誤)
(王先生拒絕討論這件事)

He’s good at his job but he seems to lack confidence. (正)
He’s good at his job but he seems to lack of confidence. (誤)
(他善於工作,但似乎缺乏信心)
I don’t seem to lack anything. (正)
I don’t seem to lack of anything. (誤)
(我好像什麼都不缺)

然而,這三個動詞的名詞 approach, discussion 和 lack 則都必須先接介系詞再接受詞。例如:

I like her approach to the problem. (我喜歡她解決這問題的方法)

We had a discussion about our future plans last night. (我們昨晚討論了我們未來的計畫)

He cannot buy this watch because of his lack of money. (他因缺錢買不起這個手錶)

Compensate 或 compensate for 呢?

Compensate 可當及物和不及物動詞用。當及物動詞時意為「補償;賠償」,後面接被補償或賠償的人或事物當受詞,然後再接 for + 補償或賠償的原因;當不及物動詞時意為「彌補;抵銷」,後面先接介系詞 for 再接要彌補的事物。請看下面的例句:

We compensate workers for injuries suffered at their work. (我們對工人在工作中受傷給予補償)

Her intelligence more than compensates for her lack of experience. (以她的聰穎來彌補她的經驗不足是綽綽有餘的)

若干真正實用的口語

Is there someone else? 你是不是有了新歡?
She is coming on to you. 她對你有意思。
He seems to be attracted to you. 他好像對妳有好感。
Are you hitting on her? 你在追她嗎?
She dumped me. 她把我甩了
He’s out of love. 他失戀了
Don’t break the date! 不要失約喔!
He finally asked me out. 他終於約我了
Don’t get it wrong! 別會錯意!
They mate for each other. 他們真是絕配。
I’m beat! 我累死了!
Shoot! 說吧! 有屁快放!
Am I boring you? 我讓你感到很煩嗎? 很無趣嗎?
Take a hike! 省省吧! 得了吧!
Take a walk! 省省吧! 得了吧!
Get in line! 等著吧! 不必了! 省省吧!
Take a number! 你省省吧! 你等著吧!
Drop dead! 去死吧!
Go to hell! 去死吧!
I laughed my ass off! 笑死我了!
What a crap! 一派胡言,胡說八道!
Cut that crap! 少胡說八道!
You’re shitting me! 你騙我!
You pissed me off! 你把我惹毛了!
That pisses me off! 那使我很火大!
Good my ass! 好個屁!
None of your God damned business! 沒你的事! 關你屁事!
Keep away! Go away! 走開!
Not even think about it! 想都別想,門都沒有!
You wanna play hard ball? I’m in game! 你要玩硬的,我奉陪!
Real bad! 真糟糕
My bad! 是我不好
How’s that? 怎麼會?

so much so that + 主詞 + 動詞

這句型時有所聞,意為「達到這樣的程度以致於」、「如此…以致於」,表示前因後果(cause and effect)。第一個 so 是「如此地;這樣地」,第二個 so 是代名詞,代表前面所提過的某件事或某一概念。

  1. He is ill, so much so that he cannot walk alone. (他病得很重,連路都走不了)
  2. He is rich, so much so that he can buy anything he wants. (他很有錢,有錢得可以買任何他想要的東西)
  3. John is clever, so much so that he can solve most of the problems. (約翰很聰明,聰明得可以解決大多數的問題)
  4. The patient was very tired when he returned from the ride, so much so that he could not sit up. (病人坐車回家時非常疲倦,疲倦得不能坐起來)
  5. He is poor, so much so that he can hardly get enough to live. (他很窮,窮得幾乎無法過活)

As mentioned above 和 as mentioned previously 的不同

在寫論文、作文或其他文件時,經常會看到有人使用as mentioned above (如上所述) 和 as mentioned previously (如前所述)。事實上,這兩個片語的用法不盡相同,as mentioned above通常用來指前一、兩段中剛敘述的內容,或前幾個句子所提到的內容,我們也可使用 as just mentioned來表達相同的意思。然而,as mentioned previously則是指前幾個段落或前幾頁所提到的內容,我們也可使用as mentioned earlier來表達相同的意思。

至於形容詞用法 — 「上述的」或「前述的」,則可使用 above-mentioned, aforementioned 或 aforesaid 來表示。

Such…as 和 such…that 的意義有何不同

有位網友寫 e-mail 問筆者 as (準關係代名詞) 和 that (關係代名詞) 在 such 之後的意義有何不同。筆者就以下面兩個例句來做說明:

  1. This is the same pen as I lost.
  2. This is the same pen that I lost.

第 1 句意為「這支筆跟我所遺失的筆是同一類型」。句中 as 為準關代,代替前面的名詞(先行詞) pen,且是形容詞子句 as I lost 中動詞 lost 的受詞。

第 2 句意為「這支筆跟我所遺失的筆是同一支筆」。句中 that 為一般關代,代替前面的名詞 pen,而且也是形容詞子句 that I lost中動詞 lost 的受詞。

總而言之,as 是表示同一類型的筆,而 that 是表示同一支筆。再舉一例:

John was not such a student as would bully his classmates.

這句意為「約翰不是那種會欺負同學的學生」。句中 as 代替前面的名詞 student,且是形容詞子句 as would bully his classmates 的主詞。

結婚的不同說法

一般大多只知道結婚或嫁娶的英文是 marry, get married 和 wed,其中最常用的是 get married,其次是 marry,而 marry 和 wed 都可當及物和不及物動詞用。例如:

My son’s getting married next week. (我兒子下週要結婚)
He didn’t marry until he was forty. (他直到四十歲才結婚)
They wed (or wedded) in the spring. (他們在春天結了婚)
He married/wed Mary last year. (他去年和瑪麗結婚)

然而,除上述外,英文至少還有 5 個片語跟 marry 和 get married 同義。它們是 get hitched, get spliced, tie the knot, take the plunge 和 walk down the aisle,其中除 get hitched 為俚語 (slang) 外,餘者均為非正式用語(informal);這 5 個片語中以 get hitched 和 tie the knot 或 walk down the aisle 比較常見。它們的例句請參閱字典。

最後值得一提的是,若 get married 和 be married 要接受詞時,則必須先接介系詞 “to” 再接受詞。例如:Michael got married to Jane last month. (麥可上個月和珍結婚);Amy will be married to a wealthy old man next month. (艾美下個月將嫁給一位富有的老頭)。所以,當你看到下面的句子時,千萬別以為邦妮跟一位男生結婚,否則就貽笑大方了:

Bonnie got married with a boy. 這句話的意思是「邦妮已婚,有個兒子」。可別以為介系詞 with 都意為「和…」,這裡的 with 表示「伴隨」的意思。如果將這句改成下句,那就不會引起誤會了:

Bonnie got married with a child. 或
Bonnie got married with a son.