Partially, partly (advs.)

這兩個副詞均意為「部分地」(in part),所以在一些上下文中,不少人認為 partially 和 partly 是可以互換的,如 The stream was partly polluted. (這條溪流遭到部分污染) 和 The stream was partially polluted. 這兩句對大多數英美人士來說意思是完全相同的。然而,事實上,它們的意思和用法並不完全相同。

Partially 意指「不完全地」(not completely; to a limited degree/extent),是 completely 的反義詞,而 partly 意指「僅涉及一部份,並非全部;有幾分」(not wholly; to some degree/extent),是 wholly 的反義詞。所以,partially deaf (弱聽) 是指整體的聽力減弱,而 partly deaf 則是指只有一耳聾了;a partially finished report 可能指一份已完全寫好但還需要做最後潤飾的報告,而 a partly finished report 可能指一份有些部分已完成,但其他部分可能都還沒開始撰寫的報告;a partially successful operation 意為「不完全成功的手術」,而 a partly successful operation 意為「有幾分成功的手術」。partially 和 partly 的語意差異在 His book, which was written partly in English and partly in French, was only partially completed when he died. (他的那本書,一部分用英文撰寫,一部分用法文撰寫,到他死時只完成了一部分) 這句中更顯而易見。

此外,partially 和 partly 的用法也不盡相同。partially 在使用上不若 partly 來得寬鬆。partially 須直接放在它所修飾的動詞、形容詞或其他副詞的前面,不可直接用於其他任何詞類之前,而 partly 則可修飾整個片語,如 He is partially responsible for the accident. (他對該事故負有部分責任);Her father is partially sighted. (她的父親弱視);The airline is partially owned by British Airways. (這家航空公司部分隸屬於英國航空公司)。所以,在下面三個句子中,我們不能用 partially 來代替 partly:

  1. Inflation has remained low, partly as a result of cheaper imports. (通貨膨脹率低,部分原因是進口產品價格較低所致)
  2. I’ll admit I was partly to blame. (我承認我也有錯)
  3. She was shaking all over, partly because she was so angry with John and partly because she was so afraid. (她全身發抖,一半是因為她對約翰氣憤不已,一半是因為非常害怕)