Possessed

Possessed 後面通常接介系詞 of, by 或 with。這個過去分詞形容詞與 of 連用時意為「擁有」(have):She was possessed of a large estate. (他過去擁有許多資產);That child is possessed of a sharp tongue. (那個小孩說話很刻薄)。possessed 和 of 之間可插入反身代名詞,但此時意為「弄到;找到」(get hold of):She possessed herself of her daughter’s diary. (她自己找到她女兒的日記)。possessed 與 by 或 with 連用時意為「瘋狂的;著魔的;鬼迷心竅的」:The prosecutor described him as a man possessed by (or with) an urge to kill. (檢察官形容他是個有瘋狂的殺人衝動的男子)。

必須注意的是,雖然 possessed 是 possess (擁有,持有) 的過去分詞,但在 He was possessed by an urge to kiss her. (他有一種難以自持的衝動想要吻她) 這樣的句子中,be possessed by 並非 possess 的被動結構,因為 possess 雖是及物動詞但卻不能用於被動態。例如,我們可以說 The criminal possessed three guns. (這罪犯擁有三把槍),但卻不能說 Three guns were possessed by the criminal.。英文中還有一些及物動詞跟 possess 一樣是沒有被動態的,如 lack (缺乏)、suit (適合)、last (維持)、cost (花費) 等。筆者在「網路翻譯家文法問題與解答第4集第3篇」單元中有針對這問題做了頗為詳盡的說明,有興趣的網友可參閱之。

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