現在條件句

現在事實條件句

句型:

1. If / When … 現在簡單式 …, … 現在簡單式 …
2. … 現在簡單式 … if / when … 現在簡單式 …

用法:

現在事實條件句係用來談論現實生活中經常發生的情況或常做的事情。

例句:

  • If my father goes to a friend’s house for dinner, he usually takes a bottle of wine or some flowers. (如果我父親去朋友家共進晚餐,他通常會帶一瓶葡萄酒或一些花)
  • When I have a day off from work, I often go swimming. (當我休一天假時,我通常去游泳)
  • If the weather is nice, Mary walks to work. (如果天氣好的話,瑪麗都是走路去上班)
  • Harry helps me with my homework when he has time. (當哈利有時間時,他都會從旁幫助我做家庭作業)
  • A: Where do you stay if you go to Beijing? (如果你去北京,你都住哪裡?)
    B: I stay with my aunt. (我都住我阿姨家)

If / When

在現在事實條件句中,使用 if 或 when 都可以。若使用 if,則表示某事比較不常發生;若使用 when,則表示某事經常發生。

例句:

  • When I have a day off from work, I often go swimming.
    - 表示我經常有假。
  • If I have a day off from work, I often go swimming.
    - 表示我很少有假。

現在非事實條件句 (與現在事實相反的條件句)

句型:

1. If … 過去簡單式 …, … would + 動詞 …
2. … would + 動詞 … if … 過去簡單式 …

用法:

現在非事實條件句係用來談論現在虛構的情況。

例句:

  • If I owned a car, I would drive to work. But I don’t own a car. (如果我有車,我會開車上班。但我沒有車)
  • Janet would travel around the world if she had more money. But she doesn’t have much money. (如果珍妮有更多的錢,她會去環遊世界。但她沒有很多錢)
  • I would move to South Korea if I spoke Korean. (如果我會說韓語,我會搬到南韓)
  • If he studied harder, he would pass the exam. (如果他再用功一點,他會通過考試)
  • A: What would you do if you won the lottery? (如果你中樂透,你會做什麼?)
    B: I would buy a mansion. (我會買一間豪宅)

在現在非事實條件句中,所有 BE 動詞一律使用 were,不可用 was,因為 was 被視為文法錯誤,所以在寫作或考試的情況中一定都要使用 were。然而,在日常會話中,我們經常使用 was。

例句:

  • If he were Japanese, he would live in Kyoto. (如果他是日本人,他會住在京都)
  • If Rachel were rich, she would buy a plane. (如果瑞秋富有,她會買一架飛機)
  • I would play basketball if I were taller. (如果我高一點,我會去打籃球)
  • I would buy that car if it were cheaper. (如果那部車便宜一點,我會買下它)
  • I would buy that car if it was cheaper. (誤) - 但經常用於會話中。

僅能使用 If

現在非事實條件句只能使用 if,不可用 when,因為它談論的是與現在事實相反的虛構情況。

例句:

  • I would buy that car if it were cheaper. (正)
  • I would buy that car when it were cheaper. (誤)

在現在非事實條件句中,除了 would 外,還可使用 should, could, might 這三個情態助動詞。

例句:

  • If Robert invited me, I really should go. (如果羅伯特邀請我,我真的應該去)
  • If you went to Egypt, you could learn Arabic. (如果你去埃及,你就能學阿拉伯語)
  • If Cindy had time, she might go to the party. (如果辛蒂有時間,她可能參加派對)
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