Tolerance, tolerant

Tolerance 和 tolerant 一為名詞一為形容詞,前者意為「容忍,忍受;寬容」,後者意為「容忍的,寬容的」。Tolerance 後面可以接 for, of, to, towards 等介系詞 (若是接 to,則 tolerance 意為「忍受能力,耐久力」),但 tolerant 只能接介系詞 of。例如:

Her tolerance of his grouchiness is impressive. (她對他不平之鳴的容忍令人印象深刻)
He has no tolerance for criticism. (他無法容忍批評)
It is a country with a reputation for tolerance towards religious minorities. (那是個以對佔少數的宗教人士持寬容態度而聞名的國家)
Many old people have a very limited tolerance to cold. (許多老年人對寒冷的忍受力很差)
She has little tolerance to sunlight. (她對陽光沒什麼忍受力)
She is tolerant of his foibles. (她對他的小缺點持寬容態度)

Tolerant 的反義字為 intolerant,意為「不能容忍的;不容異議的;心胸狹窄的」,其後也是接介系詞 of。例如:

He is intolerant of any opposition. (他不能容忍任何反對意見)

無否定意義的 too…to

我們知道,too (+ adj./adv.)…to (+ V) 意為「太…不」,如 He is too old to walk fast. (他太老而走不快),但在表示下列意思的形容詞中,too…to 並無否定意義,此時 too 相當於 very:

易於:ready, apt, inclined, liable, easy, prone, likely
渴望:anxious, eager
樂意:willing, forward

He is too ready to speak ill of others. (他易說別人壞話)
I am too apt to oversleep myself on holidays. (假日時我很容易睡過頭)
Many people are too anxious to get rich. (許多人非常渴望致富)
John was too willing to take my advice. (約翰很樂意接受我的忠告)

此外,若在 too 的前面加上 all, but, only 等字,那麼 too…to 也無否定意義,此時 all too = but too = only too = very。例如:

My first love came to an end all too soon. (我的初戀很快就結束了)
I’m only too pleased to inform you that your application has been accepted.
= I’m very pleased to inform you that your application has been accepted.
(我非常高興地通知您,您的申請已被接受)

More of a/an + 名詞 + than + 名詞

相信大家對於 more + 形容詞/副詞 + than 的句型應該不陌生,這是對兩件事或兩個人的動作性質或性格本質等所做的比較。例如:

John is more pompous (or pretentious) than Mike. (約翰比麥可更自負)
Calvin writes more beautifully than any other person in his office. (卡爾文寫的字比同辦公室的其他人都要好)

然而,如果比較的項目不是表示動作性質或性格本質的形容詞而是名詞,那麼我們就要使用「more of a/an + 名詞 + than + 名詞」的句型。事實上,這個句型與 more + 形容詞/副詞 + than 的句型可謂一體兩面,因為 of + 名詞 = 形容詞 (除 of 外,英文中所有介系詞 + 名詞都等於副詞)。例如:

He is more of a fool than I thought. (他比我想像的更笨)
= He is more foolish than I thought.

雖然,more…than 的意思是「比…更」,但當 than 的後面是接另一個形容詞或副詞時,它的意思就變成了「與其說是…還不如說是…」,而 more of a/an + 名詞 + than + 名詞就是這個意思。例如:

Optimization is more of an art than a science. (最佳化與其說是科學還不如說是藝術)
= Optimization is more artistic than scientific.

此外,我們也可使用 less…than 和 not so much…as 來表達相同的意思,但第一個和第二個形容詞的位置要對調,以上句為例:

Optimization is more artistic than scientific.
= Optimization is less scientific than artistic.
= Optimization is not so much scientific as artistic.

茲將這四種句型整理如下:
More of a/an + 名詞1 + than + 名詞2
= more + 形容詞1 + than + 形容詞2
= less + 形容詞2 + than +形容詞1
= not so much + 形容詞2 + as + 形容詞1
(與其說是名詞2/形容詞2還不如說是名詞1/形容詞1)

Included, including 和 inclusive (of)

Included 是形容詞,意為「包括在內的;被包括的」,用在名詞和代名詞之後。例如:All of us, me included, are teachers. (包括我在內,我們都是老師)。

Including 是介系詞,意為「(其中) 包括」,用在名詞和代名詞之前。例如:All of us are teachers, including me. (包括我在內,我們都是老師/我們都是老師,其中包括我在內);I’m ordering some extra office equipment, including a new printer. (我即將訂購一些額外的辦公室設備,包括一台新的印表機)。

Inclusive 是形容詞,意為「包括在內的」,用在名詞和代名詞之後。例如:The rent is NTD 6,000 inclusive. (包括水電等一切費用在內,房租為台幣6000元)。Inclusive 後面常接 of,此時其用法與 including 等量齊觀。例如:All of us are teachers, including me. = All of us are teachers, inclusive of me.

值得注意的是,在英式英語中,inclusive 經常被用來表示「所有數目或首末兩日包括在內的」意思,如 Monday to Friday inclusive (從星期一到星期五,首尾兩天 — 即星期一和星期五 — 包括在內),但美式英語則使用 through 來表達 inclusive 的意思,如 Monday through Friday (從星期一到星期五,首尾兩天 — 即星期一和星期五 — 包括在內)。

Included, including 和 inclusive (of) 的相反詞分別為 excluded, excluding 和 exclusive (of),用法相同,只是意思變成相反的「除…之外;不包括」。再舉數例來說明它們的用法 (請注意它們在句中的位置):

All on the plane were lost, including the crew. (包括機組人員在內,機上所有人都失蹤了)
= All on the plane were lost, the crew included.
= All on the plane were lost, inclusive of the crew.
= Including the crew, all on the plane were lost.

The hotel charges $5,000 a day, excluding meals. (這家飯店一天索費5000元,其中並不包括三餐)
= The hotel charges $5,000 a day, meals excluded.
= The hotel charges $5,000 a day, exclusive of meals.

All of us, me included, were invited. (包括我在內,我們所有人都受到邀請)
= All of us, including me, were invited.
= They invited all of us, inclusive of me.

The rent is $10,000 inclusive. (包括一切費用在內,房租為10000元)
= The rent is $10,000 inclusive of everything.

Consider 還是 consider as 呢?

Consider 的主要意思有三:

第一義是「認為,把…視為」(句型為:consider + 受詞 + 名詞/形容詞)。例如:Do you consider her suitable for the job? (你認為她適合做這份工作嗎?)。

第二義是「考慮,細想」。例如:We will not fail to consider your feelings on the matter. (我們不會不考慮你對這件事情的感受)。

第三義是「考慮到;考慮過」。例如:I have considered all aspects of the problem. (我已考慮過這問題的所有層面)。

由於第一義與 regard as 和 view as 同義,所以當 consider意為「認為,把…視為」時,就不可在其後加上 as (但若意為「考慮」,則可加上 as),但可加上 “to be” (可省略):

I consider it (to be) a great honor to be invited to join the club. (我認為被邀請加入此俱樂部是很大的榮幸) (正)
I consider it as a great honor to be invited to join the club. (誤)

最後要提的是,consider 後面若接動詞,須用動名詞而非不定詞:

I’m considering changing my job. (我正考慮換工作) (正)
I’m considering to change my job. (誤)

如何區分 apparent 兩個不同的意思

Apparent 這個形容詞有兩個意思:一是「表面 (上) 的;似乎的」,另一是「顯然的;顯而易見的」。當 apparent 位在名詞前面來修飾該名詞時,它意為「表面 (上) 的;似乎的」,若位在 be 動詞或其他連綴動詞的後面當主詞補語,則意為「顯然的;顯而易見的」。請看下面的例句:

The teacher was shocked by the parents’ apparent lack of concern about their child’s behavior. (老師感到震驚的是那孩子的父母親似乎毫不關心自己小孩的行為表現)
Their apparent grief soon turned to laughter. (他們表面上的哀傷立即轉為笑臉)
It was apparent that he was in no condition to travel. (他的健康狀況顯然不宜旅行)
The reasons for her sudden departure soon became apparent. (她突然離去的原因不久就一清二楚了)

Apparent 的副詞 apparently 也是這兩個意思。若位在句首,它可能意為「表面上;似乎,看來」或「顯然地;顯而易見地」;若位在句中,尤其是位在 be 動詞後面修飾另一副詞時,它大多意為「顯然地;顯而易見地」。請看下面的例句:

Apparently he did not succeed. (看來他沒有成功)
Apparently she never got my letter after all. (顯然她一直都沒有收到我的信)
He was apparently much surprised at the news. (他對那消息顯然十分驚訝)

極限形容詞的「最高程度」和「接近最高程度」

英文中有些形容詞是不可分等級的,因為其含義已包括了極限的意思,所以它們沒有比較級和最高級的形式。有些人稱之為極限形容詞 (limit adjectives),如 empty, impossible, perfect, unique 等等。

不過,我們還是可以在其前面加上 absolutely, completely, quite, thoroughly, totally, utterly, wholly 等副詞來表達「最高程度」。例如:

That’s completely (or thoroughly, totally, wholly…) impossible. (那是完全不可能的)
They were absolutely speechless. (他們簡直連一句話都說不出來)

再者,我們也可以使用 almost, nearly, practically, virtually 等副詞來表達「接近最高程度」。例如:

The classroom was virtually empty. (教室已幾乎空無一人)
It’s almost impossible to say that I love you. (要說我愛你幾乎是不可能的)

此外,amazed, amazing, disgusting, surprised, surprising, terrified, terrifying 等表示情緒反應的分詞形容詞也是屬於極限形容詞,所以也沒有比較級和最高級的形式。同樣地,我們可以在其前加上 absolutely, completely, quite, thoroughly, totally, utterly, wholly 等副詞來表達「最高程度」,如 utterly amazed (非常吃驚)、absolutely disgusting (討厭至極)、completely terrified (十分震驚)。然而,我們卻不能在這些分詞形容詞前面加上 almost, nearly, practically, virtually 等副詞來表達「接近最高程度」。

Equal 和 equal to 你搞混了嗎?

Equal 這個字可當動詞、形容詞和名詞用,是個很常見的字。相信絕大部分人都會這個字,但在表達「等於」的意思時,卻有不少人會用錯。當動詞時,equal 是個及物動詞,亦即其後直接接受詞,不可先接介系詞 to 再接受詞。再者,作「等於」解時,equal 與 “be equal to ” (這個 equal 是形容詞) 同義;換言之,若有受詞,則當及物動詞用的 equal 後面不可接 to,但當形容詞用的 equal 後面一定要有 to。例如:

Two and three equals five. (2加3等於5) (正)
Two and three equals to five. (誤)
Two and three is equal to five. (正)
Two and three is equal five. (誤)

此外,當及物動詞用的 equal 還有一個蠻常用的意思,那就是「平了(…記錄)」:

Thompson today equaled (or equalled) the world record for the 400 meters. (今天湯普森平了400公尺的世界記錄)

As mentioned above 和 as mentioned previously 的不同

在寫論文、作文或其他文件時,經常會看到有人使用as mentioned above (如上所述) 和 as mentioned previously (如前所述)。事實上,這兩個片語的用法不盡相同,as mentioned above通常用來指前一、兩段中剛敘述的內容,或前幾個句子所提到的內容,我們也可使用 as just mentioned來表達相同的意思。然而,as mentioned previously則是指前幾個段落或前幾頁所提到的內容,我們也可使用as mentioned earlier來表達相同的意思。

至於形容詞用法 — 「上述的」或「前述的」,則可使用 above-mentioned, aforementioned 或 aforesaid 來表示。