How come 的用法

  • How come Adam called his dad a bloody fool! (亞當怎麼叫他老頭大笨蛋呢!) (正)
  • How about Adam called his dad a bloody fool! (誤)
  • What come Adam called his dad a bloody fool! (誤)

解說: 疑問副詞 how 與 come 構成副詞片語 how come,相當於 why,意為「何以會…;為什麼」,但用 why 時,句子為問句,用 how come 時,句子為直述句。How come 大多用於口語。

Else 的用法

Else 是個副詞,可用在以 any-、every-、no- 和 some- 開頭的一群字後面來表示「其他;別的;另外」的意思。這群字包括 anybody、everybody、nobody、somebody、anyone、everyone、no one、someone、anything、everything、nothing、something 等不定代名詞以及 anywhere、everywhere、nowhere、somewhere (或美國口語的 anyplace、everyplace、no place、someplace) 等副詞。例如:

  • Anybody else would have condemned his foolish behavior. (換了誰都會譴責他的愚蠢行為)
  • Owen stayed at work when everybody else had gone home. (別人都回家了,歐文還在工作)
  • No one else can do it. (沒有其他人能做這件事了)
  • Tracy married someone else. (崔西嫁給別人了)
  • Is there anything else I can do for you? (我還能為你做什麼事嗎?)
  • There is nothing else on the desk except a sheet of paper. (書桌上除了一張紙外沒有其他東西)
  • Did you go anywhere else last night? (你昨晚有沒有到別的地方?)
  • If we don’t provide a good service, customers will go somewhere else. (如果我們服務不好,顧客就會到別的地方)
  • This animal is not found anyplace else in the world. (這種動物在世界其他地方都沒有)
  • You’ll have to sit someplace else. (你必須坐別的地方)

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Q:also, as well 和 too 之間有何不同呢?

A:Also, as well 和 too 都是副詞,也都意為「也」,而 also 還有「此外」的意思。

Also 常用於書寫中 (亦即比較正式),在講話時比較不常用,它可以放在句中不同的位置。首先來看 also 意為「此外」的情況,此時它位在句首,其後須有逗點,是用來強調後面的句子或提供前一句的補充資料或提出新的論點或主題。例如:

  • Rose is a beautiful girl. Also, she is very kind-hearted. (蘿絲是個漂亮的女孩。此外,她有好心腸 - 人美心也美)
  • OK, I’ll call you tomorrow and we can discuss it then. Also, we need to buy a new computer. (好,我明天會打電話給你,屆時我們可以討論這件事。此外,我們需要買一部新電腦)

當 also 意為「也」時,它跟一般副詞一樣,通常位在句子的中間,亦即位在主詞和主動詞之間 (即普通動詞之前),或位在語氣助動詞或第一個助動詞之後,或位在當主動詞的 BE 動詞之後。例如:
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No more, not any more

No more 和 not any more 均意為「不再」,可當限定詞和副詞用,但 no more 比較正式。例如:

No more, not any more 當限定詞

  • I will watch no more Korean dramas. (我不會再看韓劇)
  • I won’t watch any more Korean dramas.
  • There’s no more milk left. I’d better go and buy some more. (牛奶都喝完了。我最好去再買一些)
  • There isn’t any more milk left. I’d better go buy some more.

No more, not any more 當副詞

  • All the problems have been solved. You should worry no more. (所有問題都已解決。你應該不用再擔心了)
  • Amy and Helen used to be good friends, but they don’t like each other any more. (= any longer) (艾美和海倫過去是好朋友,但現在已不再是了)

No more than, not any more than
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Enough 的用法

Enough 可當限定詞、代名詞和副詞用,意為「足夠 (的/地)」,其主要句型為 enough for somebody/something、enough to do something 及 enough for somebody/something to do something。

Enough 當限定詞時後接複數可數名詞或不可數名詞。例如:

  • The conference room has enough seats for everyone. (會議室有足夠的座位給每個人坐)
  • We’ve seen enough television repeats. (我們已看了夠多的電視重播)
  • I usually don’t get enough sleep. (我經常睡眠不足)
  • There was enough food for about five people. (食物夠大約五個人吃)

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Such 還是 so 呢?

Such 和 so 的用法都需要相當大的篇幅才能說明清楚。本文僅就這兩者同義的「如此,這麼;很,非常」(to this degree; very) 的意思來說明一般使用上常見的錯誤。就此意思而言,such 為限定詞,後接名詞片語,而 so 為副詞,後接形容詞或副詞片語。

不過,在此有需要先說明一下名詞片語的結構。完整的名詞片語主要是由三個元素所構成:不定冠詞 (a/an) + 形容詞 + 名詞,其中名詞一定會有,但名詞若為複數可數名詞或不可數名詞,那麼該名詞片語就不會有不定冠詞,而形容詞可能存在、也可能不存在,所以最精簡的名詞片語可能只有名詞一個元素而已。

現在就來看看一般在使用 such 或 so 時常見的錯誤。例如:
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Quite 的用法和意思

Quite 為程度副詞,視其後所接的字詞而定,它有兩個意思:1.「相當,尚可,頗,有幾分」(rather, fairly, to some degree);2.「很,非常,完全,十分」(very, totally or completely)。例如:

  • Laura had been quite good at drawing when she was at school. (蘿拉求學時頗為擅長繪畫)
  • We were quite excited about buying a new car. (我們對買了新車都感到相當興奮)
  • His life has been quite different ever since his wife died. (從他太太過世起,他的生活就完全不一樣了)
  • The victim remembered those rogues quite clearly. (受害者十分清晰地記得那些流氓)

Quite + 可分等級的形容詞和副詞
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Once 的用法

Once 可當副詞、連接詞和名詞用。

Once 當副詞時意為「一次,一回」,如 We’ve met only once. (我們只見過一次面)。在這項用法中,我們經常使用 once a + 單數時間詞 (once a week/month/year etc. - 一星期/一個月/一年等一次) 及 once every + 複數時間詞 (once every two days/three years etc. - 每兩天/三年等一次) 來表示事情發生的頻率。例如:

  • We go for dinner together once a week. (我們一個禮拜會共進晚餐一次) (正)
  • We go for dinner together once the week. (誤)
  • Tom visits his parents only once every two or three months. (湯姆每兩三個月才探望他父母親一次)

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No longer, not any longer

No longer 和 not any longer 均意為「不再」,一般視之為同義詞,但 no longer 比較正式。例如:

  • I could stand John’s rudeness no longer. (我無法再忍受約翰的粗魯無禮)
  • I couldn’t stand John’s rudeness any longer. (我不能再忍受約翰的粗魯無禮)

No longer 和 not any longer 的反義詞為 still。例如:

  • She no longer works here. (她已不在這裡工作)
  • She doesn’t work here any longer. (她已不在這裡工作)
  • She still works here. (她仍在這裡工作)

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