Notwithstanding 的用法

Notwithstanding 主要當介系詞用,意為「儘管」(in spite of, despite)。大多數字典還將它列為副詞,意為「不過,仍然;儘管如此」(nevertheless),但這一意思已鮮少用在現代英語中。Notwithstanding 始終都是一個字,而且這一直是許多世紀以來的標準拼法。

儘管 notwithstanding 與 in spite of 的意思通常完全一樣,但它們在句中的位置卻不是完全不同。In spite of 總是位在其受詞之前,如 In spite of rain, we went swimming. (儘管下雨,我們還是去游泳了)。但 notwithstanding 通常位在其受詞之後,如 Rain notwithstanding, we went swimming.。當然,它也可以放在受詞之前,如 Notwithstanding rain, we went swimming.。
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In spite of 和 despite 的用法

In spite of 和 despite 為同義介系詞,意為「儘管;雖然」,是在表示兩個事物之間的對比。它們通常用在寫作,比較少用於口說,而 despite 比 in spite of 略微正式一些,但常用許多。必須注意的是,in spite of 是三個字且一定要有 of,而 despite 後面不可有 of。例如:

  • We went swimming in spite of rain. (儘管下雨,我們還是去游泳了) (正)
    We went swimming in spite rain. (誤)
    We went swimming inspite of rain. (誤)
  • Despite all his efforts Robert failed. (雖然羅伯特盡了一切努力,還是失敗了) (正)
    Despite of all his efforts Robert failed. (誤)

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