先行詞為人 + 事物時,關代要用 that

  • My daughter loves anybody and anything that is pretty. (我女兒喜歡任何漂亮的人事物) (正)
  • My daughter loves anybody and anything which is pretty. (誤)
  • My daughter loves anything and anybody who is pretty. (誤)

解說:當先行詞為人時,關係代名詞可以用 who 或 that;當先行詞為事物時,關係代名詞可以用 which 或 that;所以,當先行詞有兩個,一個是人, 一個是事物時,關代只能用 that。另一種判斷方式是,當先行詞為不定代詞時,關代要用 that。

Else 的用法

Else 是個副詞,可用在以 any-、every-、no- 和 some- 開頭的一群字後面來表示「其他;別的;另外」的意思。這群字包括 anybody、everybody、nobody、somebody、anyone、everyone、no one、someone、anything、everything、nothing、something 等不定代名詞以及 anywhere、everywhere、nowhere、somewhere (或美國口語的 anyplace、everyplace、no place、someplace) 等副詞。例如:

  • Anybody else would have condemned his foolish behavior. (換了誰都會譴責他的愚蠢行為)
  • Owen stayed at work when everybody else had gone home. (別人都回家了,歐文還在工作)
  • No one else can do it. (沒有其他人能做這件事了)
  • Tracy married someone else. (崔西嫁給別人了)
  • Is there anything else I can do for you? (我還能為你做什麼事嗎?)
  • There is nothing else on the desk except a sheet of paper. (書桌上除了一張紙外沒有其他東西)
  • Did you go anywhere else last night? (你昨晚有沒有到別的地方?)
  • If we don’t provide a good service, customers will go somewhere else. (如果我們服務不好,顧客就會到別的地方)
  • This animal is not found anyplace else in the world. (這種動物在世界其他地方都沒有)
  • You’ll have to sit someplace else. (你必須坐別的地方)

閱讀全文

呼格 (vocative case)

呼格 (vocative or vocative case) 就是稱呼語,也就是被稱呼的人名、職稱、尊稱等。呼格通常為名詞、名詞片語等名詞類,它們都被視為插入語,因此須以一個逗點或一對逗點 (如果呼格出現在句子中間的話) 來與句子其他部分分開,如 See you next Monday, Paul. (保羅,下週一見)。

呼格跟副詞一樣,幾乎可以出現在句子的任何地方。但也別養成看到人名就加逗點的習慣,除非某一名字指的是甫被稱呼的某人,否則它並非呼格或稱呼語,因此就不必以插入語的形式存在。例如:

  • She told John to get out of her sight. (她叫約翰滾開)
  • John, get out of my sight! (約翰,滾開!)

呼格或稱呼語大致可分為四種:

閱讀全文

All of the + 名詞中的 of 是贅字

在「all of the/these/those/所有格 + 名詞」的句型中,all 是不定代名詞 (indefinite pronoun),如 All of these students live in Taipei. (這些學生全都住在台北);All of his money is spent on food. (他的錢全都花在食物上)。由於 of 可以省略,上述句型就變成「all the/these/those/所有格 + 名詞」,此時 all 變成 (前置) 限定詞 (determiner or pre-determiner),如 All these students live in Taipei.;All his money is spent on food.。雖然 all 後面有沒有 of 都可以,文法都沒有錯,但許多人認為 all of … 的寫法不夠簡潔,因為 of 一點作用都沒有,是不折不扣的贅字。所以,

  • All my students are female.
    All of my students are female. (我的學生全都是女生) (欠佳) - of 是贅字。
  • I want to hear all the details.
    I want to hear all of the details. (我想要聽所有的細節) (欠佳) - of 是贅字。

然而,如果將「all of the/these/those/所有格 + 名詞」中的「the/these/those/所有格 + 名詞」換成人稱代名詞的受格 (us, you, them, it),那麼 of 不能省略,否則就犯了大錯。例如:

  1. All of us must attend the meeting. (我們全都要參加這項會議)
  2. All of you need to buy me a coffee. (你們全都要請我喝杯咖啡)
  3. All of them can speak Japanese. (他們全都會講日語)
  4. He’d like all of us to get there. (他希望我們全都去那裡)
  5. I’ve invited all of them to my birthday party. (我已邀請他們全都來參加我的生日派對)

不過,若「all of + 人稱代名詞」當主詞用,那麼它可改寫為不用 of 的「人稱代名詞主格 + all」;若「all of + 人稱代名詞」當受詞用,那麼它可改寫為不用 of 的「人稱代名詞受格 + all」。茲將上面 5 句改寫如下,上下對應句之間的意思完全一樣且都是標準英語:

  1. We all must attend the meeting.
  2. You all need to buy me a coffee.
  3. They all can speak Japanese.
  4. He’d like us all to get there.
  5. I’ve invited them all to my birthday party.