Q:在 He is an internationally(-)known scholar. 這句中,internationally 和 known 之間要不要加連字號?

A:以 -ly 做字尾的副詞在與其他修飾語 (尤其是過去分詞) 構成複合形容詞時不加連字號 (hyphen)。所以,問題中的句子應寫成 He is an internationally known scholar. (他是一位國際知名的學者),亦即 internationally 及其所修飾的 known 之間沒有連字號。這類複合形容詞相當常見,俯拾即是,如 a widely used device (廣泛使用的裝置),a beautifully decorated house (裝飾得美輪美奐的房子),scantily clad girls (穿著清涼的女子),publicly held securities (公開發行的證券) 等等。

不過,若字尾非 -ly 的副詞與過去分詞構成複合形容詞,則要加連字號,如 an ill-equipped laboratory (設備簡陋的實驗室),an ill-favored man (其貌不揚的男子),ill-gotten gains (不義之財),a well-chosen name (精挑細選的名字),a well-behaved child (行為端正的小孩),well-dressed ladies (穿著體面的女士) 等等。

Q:在英文報紙上看到 Winter is come! 這樣的句子。我想這個句子應該是對的,不然他們不會這麼寫。不過,我還是不懂,為什麼一個句子中可以把兩個動詞放在一起呢? 不是要寫成 Winter is coming. 嗎?

A:無論是 Winter is come. 還是 Winter is coming.,都是正確的句子,但意思不同。首先來看 Winter is coming.,其意為「冬天即將來臨」,這是用現在進行式來表示不久即將發生的事情。至於 Winter is come.,句中的 come 是過去分詞,當主詞補語,而不是現在式 (come 的動詞三態是:come, came, come),所以這句的意思是「冬天已來臨」或「冬天來了」。

有一個文法觀念必須建立,那就是:不管及物或是不及物動詞,它們的過去分詞都可以作形容詞用,當主詞補語。由於不及物動詞不能有被動態,所以就不及物動詞而言,「BE + P.P.」就相當於「have + P.P.」的主動完成式結構,意為「已經…」;至於及物動詞,由於「BE + P.P.」就是被動態,所以它相當於「have + been + P.P.」的被動完成式結構,意為「已經被…」。請看下面的例句:

  • Winter is come. (冬天來了)
    = Winter has come.
  • You can watch TV when your homework is completed. (作業做完後,你可以看電視)
    = You can watch TV when your homework has been completed.

Q:”quite” 在會話中的意思很難瞭解,它到底是「完全,十分,非常」(totally, perfectly, completely) 還是「有幾分,頗為,相當」(partially, somewhat, fairly, rather) 呢?

A:答案是:quite 兼具這兩種意思。如果我們說 “I am quite happy.”,這可能意為「我頗為高興但不是十分高興」(I’m partially, fairly, somewhat happy but not completely happy),但也可能意為「我十分/非常高興」(I’m totally, entirely, completely, 100% happy)。

所以接下來您可能會問:我們要如何辨別它們的意思呢? 當有人說 I am quite happy. 時,要怎麼知道他們是表示「我有些高興」還是「我十分高興」呢? 如果光看這個句子,確實無法知道它表示那個意思。不過,別氣餒,有一些線索可以幫助我們解決這問題。

首先,英語中有些形容詞被稱為極限形容詞 (limit adjectives) 或不可分等級的形容詞 (non-gradable adjectives),這些形容詞本身的含意已包括極度的意思,因此通常沒有比較級和最高級形式,如 perfect, unique, enormous, worthless, impossible 以及現在分詞和過去分詞形容詞,如 disgusting, exhausted, tired, amazed, terrified, delighted 等等。這些形容詞雖沒有比較級和最高級形式,但卻可以用 absolutely, completely, perfectly, quite, simply, totally, utterly 和 wholly 等副詞來修飾以表示最高程度 (亦即已達極限),或者用 almost, nearly, practically, virtually 來修飾以表示接近最高程度 — 但請注意,現在分詞和過去分詞形容詞不能用 almost, nearly, practically, virtually 來修飾 。所以,如果我說 I am quite exhausted. 時,這一定意為「我極度/十分/非常疲倦」,因為它不可能表示「我有些極度/十分/非常疲倦」,這講不通。

其次,從上下文來判斷。我們往往可從說話者所說的話清楚地知道他或她所要表達的 quite 的意思。假設 John 最近生了一場病:

  • Mike: Are you feeling better now?
  • John: Yes, I’m feeling quite healthy, thank you. In fact, I feel great!

從上面的對話可知,由於 John 說 I feel great! (我覺得身體狀況棒極了),所以他可能表示他已完全康復,因此 quite healthy 應是意為「十分/非常健康」。

然而,他們的對話也有可能如下:

  • Mike: Are you feeling better now?
  • John: Well, I’m feeling quite healthy, but I still have a terrible headache.

在這裡,由於 John 說 I still have a terrible headache. (我的頭還是痛得很厲害),所以 quite healthy 應是意為「有些、部分健康但不是百分之百復原、十分健康」。

再者,如果這些句子是用講的,那麼我們通常可以從說話者的語氣和語調獲得線索。如果他或她說話的語氣肯定且句末的語調下降,那麼 quite 通常意為「完全,十分,非常」;然而,如果他或她說話的語氣比較不確定且句末的語調上揚,那麼 quite 通常意為「有幾分,頗為,相當」。

事實上,用 quite 來表示「完全,十分,非常」的意思現在是 “quite old-fashioned” (十分/非常老式的用法) — 起碼在口語是如此。在寫作,尤其是在正式寫作中,quite 有時還是會被用來表示「完全,十分,非常」的意思,所以在小說中您可能還會看到這樣的用法;但在現代英語口語中,quite 通常意為「有幾分,頗為,相當」。

Q:The criminal possessed three guns. 為何不能改成被動態的 Three guns were possessed by the criminal. 呢?

A:大家都知道,英文的被動語態是由 BE + 及物動詞的過去分詞所構成,換言之,不及物動詞是沒有被動態的。因此,有人便以為所有及物動詞都可用於被動態。其實不然,有些及物動詞並沒有相應的被動態。問題中的 possess 就是這樣一個沒有相應被動態的及物動詞。茲將一些比較常見的沒有被動態的及物動詞臚列如下,供大家參考。

1. 意為「擁有」、「容納」、「缺少」、「由… 組成,構成」的及物動詞,如 possess, hold, lack, comprise 等,不能用於被動態。例如:

  • Bill Gates possesses great wealth. (比爾蓋茲擁有大量財富)
    Great wealth is possessed by Bill Gates. (誤 — 因為 possess 不能用於被動態。以下錯誤的句子亦適用這項說明)
  • The cinema holds about 500. (這家電影院能容納約 500 人)
    About 500 are held by the cinema. (誤)
  • Mr. Wang usually lacks confidence. (王先生經常缺乏信心)
    Confidence is usually lacked by Mr. Wang. (誤)
  • The country comprises 26 provinces. (這國家有 26 個省/這國家由 26 個省所組成)
    Twenty-six provinces are comprised by the country. (誤)

2. 意為「適合」的及物動詞,如 become, fit, suit 等,不能用於被動態。例如:

  • This sort of behavior hardly becomes a person in your position. (這種行為與一個有你這樣地位的人簡直不相稱)
    A person in your position is hardly become by this sort of behavior. (誤)
  • That color really suits her. (那種顏色跟她真的很相配)
    She is really suited by that color. (誤)
  • This dress fits me very well. (這件衣服非常合我的身)
    I am fitted very well by this dress. (誤)

3. 意為「意味,意思是;相似,相像」的及物動詞,如 mean, resemble 等,不能用於被動態。例如:

  • The red light means “Stop”. (紅燈意味「停」)
    “Stop” is meant by the red light. (誤)
  • She resembles her sister in appearance but not in character. (她的外表像她姊姊,但個性不像)
    Her sister is resembled by her in appearance but not in character. (誤)

4. 意為「明白,理解,領會」的及物動詞,如 catch, get, take 等,不能用於被動態。例如:

  • I didn’t quite catch your last point. (我不太明白你說的最後一點)
    Your last point wasn’t quite caught by me. (誤)
  • She took me wrong. (她誤解了我的意思)
    I was taken wrong by her. (錯誤)

5. 意為「有、吃、接受、度過、經歷」等的及物動詞 have,不能用於被動態。例如:

  • I have three sons and two daughters. (我有三兒二女)
    Three sons and two daughters are had by me. (誤)
  • I have already had dinner. (我已吃過晚餐)
    Dinner has already been had by me. (誤)
  • We will have a good Spring Festival. (我們將會過一個愉快的春節)
    A good Spring Festival will be had by us. (誤)

6. 意為「維持,夠用」的及物動詞 last,不能用於被動態。例如:

  • This food will only last them three days. (這些食物只夠他們吃三天)
    They will only be lasted three days by this food. (誤)
  • This dress has lasted me three years. (這件衣服我已穿了三年)
    I have been lasted three years by this dress. (誤)

7. 意為「價值,花費」的及物動詞 cost,不能用於被動態。例如:

  • The house cost me a lot of money. (這棟房子花了我很多錢)
    I was cost a lot of money by the house. (誤)

8. 意為「(不幸事件) 發生於,降臨在」的及物動詞 befall,不能用於被動態。例如:

  • Some misfortune must have befallen them. (某種災禍必定已降臨在他們頭上)
    They must have been befallen by some misfortune. (誤)

Q:在 Considering its difficulty, John did very well to pass the exam. 這句中,considering 是當介系詞用,但 considering its difficulty 是做何種詞性呢? 由於經常見到像 considering, concerning 或 regarding 這樣的用字,是否能請您做個比較詳細的解說?

A:根據 The New Fowler’s Modern English Usage 一書,這類介系詞叫做「邊緣介系詞」(marginal prepositions),亦即它們具有和一般介系詞 (如 at, in, from, by 等) 相同的語法功能,但型態卻與一般介系詞大異其趣。這類介詞大多以現在分詞型態存在,少數為過去分詞或看似原形動詞 (有些分詞型態的邊緣介詞還具有連接詞的功能)。它們與其受詞 (名詞或名詞片語) 在句中主要是當副詞用 (如 considering its difficulty) 或放在名詞/名詞片語之後作後置修飾語。由於有些邊緣介詞相當常用,因此瞭解它們的用法確有其必要性。茲將整理後的邊緣介詞臚列如下,希望沒有遺珠之憾。

1. 現在分詞型態的邊緣介詞

a. barring/bar (= except/except for 除…之外,除非)
Barring any last-minute problems we should finish the job by tomorrow. (除非最後一刻出問題,否則我們應可在明天之前完成任務)

b. concerning (= about; with regard to; in connection with 關於) — 比較正式的用語
Police are anxious to hear any information concerning his whereabouts. (警方急欲知道任何有關他下落的消息)

c. considering (鑑於,就…而論)
He did very well in his exams considering that he had studied so little (or considering how little he had studied). (他唸得很少,就此而言,他考得很不錯了)

d. excepting (= except 除…之外) — 通常用於句首或 always, not, without 之後
Dogs are not allowed in the shop, always excepting blind people’s guide dogs. (除盲人的導盲犬之外,其它的狗一律不准帶進商店)
Everyone passed the exam, not excepting John. (每個人都通過考試,約翰也不例外)

e. excluding (除…之外;不包括)
There are twenty students in the classroom, excluding the teacher. (教室內除老師外有 20 個學生)

f. failing (= in the absence or failure of 如果沒有…的話)
You may find her in the dormitory, or failing that, try the library. (你可以去宿舍找她,如果找不到的話,可以再去圖書館找看看)

g. including (包括,其中包括)
There are six people in the room, including three women. (房間內有 6 個人,其中包括 3 名婦女)

h. pending (= until 直到;在等待…期間) — 正式用語
We put off our decision pending his return from Japan. (我們等到他從日本回來才做出決定)

i. regarding (= as regards 關於,有關) — 正式用語,常用於商業書信中
Regarding your recent inquiry… (關於您最近的詢問)

j. respecting (= concerning; in respect of 關於,至於) — 正式用語
I don’t know at all respecting the computer. (我對電腦一竅不通)

k. touching (= about; concerning 關於) — 書面上或比較舊式的用語
Touching their complaints about school meals, I suggest that we should give a positive response. (關於他們對學校伙食的不滿,我建議我們給予正面的回應)

l. wanting (1. = lacking; without 缺乏,沒有 2. = less; minus 不夠,不足)
Wanting courage, nothing can be done. (沒有勇氣,什麼事都做不成)
a book wanting a cover (沒有封面的書)
a month wanting two days (差兩天就一個月)

2. 過去分詞型態的邊緣介詞

a. given (後接名詞、名詞片語或 that 子句 — that 可省略) (考慮到;如果;假如)
Given their inexperience, they’ve done a good job.
= Given that they’re inexperienced, they’ve done a good job. (考慮到他們缺乏經驗,他們的工作已算是做得不錯了)

b. granted/granting that (假定,即使)
Granted (or granting) that he should send money to help with the bills, it doesn’t mean he will. (即使他應拿錢出來幫忙付帳,也不意味他會這樣做)

3. 原形動詞型態的邊緣介詞

a. bar/barring (除…之外)
He’s the best singer in the country, bar none (=without any exceptions). (他是全國最佳歌手,無人能比)

b. save/save for/saving (= except/except for 除…之外) — 正式用語
They answered all the questions save one. (除了一個問題外,他們回答了所有問題)
The classroom was empty save for two girls. (save for 比 save 常用) (教室只有兩個女孩)
I agree with you, save that you have got one fact wrong. (除了你有一點錯誤之外,我同意你的看法)
Saving your presence (恕我冒昧,恕我直言), I don’t think it is a very good idea. (請恕我直言,我認為那不是一個很好的構想)

Melted, molten (adjs.)

Melted 為 melt 的過去式和過去分詞,但也可當 (分詞) 形容詞用,意為「熔化的;融化的」,如 The chocolate (has) melted. (巧克力融化了);melted chocolate/butter (融化了的巧克力/奶油)。談到 melt,與其相關的一句讚美食物的成語亦值得學習,因為它經常用得到,那就是 melt in the mouth (入口即化),如 These chocolates really melt in your mouth. (這些巧克力真的是入口即化)。

Molten 的意思與 melted 相同,但僅用於需要非常高的溫度才會熔化的物質,亦即熔點 (melting point) 很高的物質 (如岩石、金屬或玻璃),如 molten rock/metal (熔化的岩石/金屬)。

Q:”You have spelt it wrong.” 這樣寫對嗎? 還是應該把句中的 wrong 改為 wrongly 呢?

A:wrongly 是副詞,而 wrong 也可當副詞用。一般通用的規則是:wrongly 放在它所修飾的動詞之前,而 wrong 放在它所修飾的動詞之後,如 He has been wrongly accused. (他被誣告);You guessed wrong. (你猜錯了)。所以,You have spelt it wrong. (你把它拼錯了) 是正確的句子,不可把句中的 wrong 改為 wrongly。

Wrong/wrongly 的反義詞 right/rightly 的用法亦同,如 I am rightly informed. (我得到正確的消息);Did I do it right? (我做得對嗎?)。但 if I remember right/rightly (如果我沒有記錯的話) 這個附屬子句則是此規則的一個明顯例外,因為這裡用 right 或 rightly 都可以:He was driving his mum’s car, if I remember right/rightly. (如果我沒記錯的話,他開的是他媽媽的車)。此外,rightly or wrongly (對或不對) 這個片語不可寫成 right or wrong,而且前後順序也不能對調,亦即不能寫成 wrongly or rightly:He believed, rightly or wrongly, that she was guilty. (他也許對也許不對,但不管怎樣,他認為她有罪)。再者,由 wrong (副詞) 所構成的幾個片語都相當常用,如 get someone wrong (誤會、誤解某人):Don’t get me wrong, there’s no offence meant. (別誤會,我沒有冒犯之意);go wrong (出錯,搞錯,弄錯;走錯方向;不對勁):I didn’t know where I went wrong. (我不知道我錯在那裡)。

順便一提的是,spell 的過去式和過去分詞都有兩種拼法,一是 “spelt, spelt”,另一是 “spelled, spelled”,前者是英式英語的拼法,而美國人大多使用後者。

Awake, awaken, wake, waken (vv.)

這四個動詞大致上可視為同義詞,它們皆可當及物和不及物動詞用,也都有字面和比喻的意思,前者意為「喚醒;弄醒;(使) 醒來」,後者意為「喚起;激起;使認識到;使意識到」。

Awake 的過去式可以是 awaked 或 awoke,而過去分詞可以是 awaked 或 awoken,但通常使用 awoke 和 awoken:The thunder awoke me. (雷聲把我驚醒了);He awoke to the sound of birds chirping. (他被啁啾的鳥叫聲叫醒了);I awoke to find myself alone. (我一覺醒來發現只有自己一個人);His father tried to awake him to a sense of duty. (他父親試圖使他認識到自己的責任);We must awake to our responsibilities. (我們一定要認識到自己的職責)。awaken 是個規則動詞 (awaken, awakened, awakened):I was awakened by their shouts. (我被他們的喊叫聲吵醒);He awakened her at six. (他在六點時叫醒她);He has awakened to new challenges. (他已意識到新的挑戰);She awakened at six. (她六點鐘醒來)。

Wake 的過去式可以是 waked 或 woke,而過去分詞可以是 waked 或 woken,但通常使用 woke 和 woken:She usually wakes (up) early. (她通常早起);John woke to a quiet knocking on his door. (約翰被一陣輕輕的敲門聲給叫醒了);The bad news finally woke the country to the danger of war. (壞消息傳來,終於使國人意識到即將發生戰爭的危險)。wake 後面經常接介系詞 up,是一個相當常用的片語動詞:I woke up at six this morning. (今天早晨我六點鐘醒來);Please wake me up at 7:00. (請在七點鐘叫醒我)。waken是個規則動詞 (waken, wakened, wakened):He wakened early that morning. (那天早晨他很早就醒了);I was wakened by their shouts. (我被他們的喊叫聲吵醒);All this wakened the local government to the need for safety precautions. (所有這些使當地政府認識到必須採取安全預防措施)。

一般而言,awake 和 awaken 用在比喻意思的情況比較多,而 wake 和 waken 用在字面意思的情況比較多。就使用頻率而言,awaken 比 awake 常用,而 wake 比 waken 常用。

除做動詞外,這四個字當中的 awake 還可當形容詞用,而 wake 還可當名詞用。awake 用做形容詞時意為「醒著的;認識到的,意識到的」,但不可用在名詞之前:I managed to stay awake long enough to watch the video. (我強忍著不睡看完了錄影帶);I was already wide awake before the alarm went off. (鬧鐘還沒停,我就已完全醒了);We are fully awake to the dangers of the situation. (我們充分意識到局勢的危險)。在上面的例句中,stay awake 意為「保持醒著的」,而 wide awake 意為「完全醒著的;頭腦清醒的」,它們都是頗為常見的片語。wake 用做名詞時意為「守夜;守靈;(船航行時留下的) 航跡,尾波,尾流」,通常用在 in the wake of 或 in sb’s/sth’s wake 中 — 這兩個片語意為「尾隨,緊跟在…後面;隨著…而來,作為…的結果」:The car left clouds of dust in its wake. (車子後面揚起一片塵土);An inquiry has been set up in the wake of the crash. (墜機發生後,調查隨之展開)。

Q:以前學過關係代名詞接BE動詞可以省略如下:I know a girl who was infected by HIV recently. 省略為 I know a girl infected by HIV recently.。請問這樣的規則是否有什麼限制? 如果BE動詞後面是形容詞也可以嗎? 如 I know a girl who is sick. 是否可省略為 I know a girl sick. 呢?

A:我們所謂的關係代名詞 + BE動詞可以省略的情況 (亦即關係子句的減化) 是指分詞 (過去分詞和現在分詞) 形容詞,所以BE動詞 + 形容詞的情況通常是不能省略的,否則就會出現語法不對、意思不清的情況。根據上述,形容詞子句 (即關係子句) 可以省略關係詞和/或BE動詞的情況有下列幾種:

(1) 關係詞在關係子句中當受詞,如 He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. (他是我昨天看到的男子) (句中的 whom/that 可以省略)。

(2) 關係詞在關係子句中當主詞,其後接 BE動詞 + 現在分詞或過去分詞,這時可以省略關係詞及BE動詞,而留下分詞:

  • The train now arriving (= which is now arriving) at platform 1 is the 6:36 from Taipei. (現在開抵第一月台的火車是 6 點 36 分從台北開出的)
  • Food sold (= which is sold) in this supermarket is of the highest quality. (這家超市所販賣的食物都是品質最好的)

(3) 若關係子句中的主動詞為普通動詞,則將這個動詞改為現在分詞,然後省略關係詞,如 Anyone touching (= who touches) these priceless exhibits will be escorted out of the museum. (任何觸摸這些貴重展示品的人都將被請出博物館),但這並不表示所有這類關係子句都可將普通動詞改為現在分詞,然後省略關係詞,如 The girl who fell down the cliff broke her leg. (那位墜落懸崖的女孩摔斷了腿) 就不能省略為 The girl falling down cliff….,其中的道理請看下面的說明。

不知各位有沒有發現,「普通動詞改為現在分詞並省略關係詞」跟「關係詞 + BE 動詞 + 現在分詞,然後省略關係詞和 BE動詞」是不是都剩下現在分詞呢? 如果我們要將省略句還原,那麼要如何判斷它是「省略關係詞和 BE動詞」還是「普通動詞改為現在分詞」呢?

這裡告訴大家一個技巧:如果先行詞是「特指」,那麼省略後的現在分詞原本是進行式的型態,亦即它是「BE動詞 + 現在分詞」的省略 (雖然還是有例外情況,但為數不多)。我們來看 The girl falling down the cliff broke her leg. 這一句,由於 the girl 是特定少女,所以若要還原,應該變成 The girl who was falling down the cliff broke her leg.,這意思是說「正在墜落懸崖的少女摔斷了腿」,顯然地意思不通;若先行詞為泛指,則省略後的現在分詞只是普通動詞改為現在分詞而已。

  • The boy driving (= who was driving) the BMW was underage, unlicensed and over the limit. (那位開著 BMW 的男孩未成年、無照且超速) (先行詞 boy 為特指)
  • The police impounded all the vehicles belonging to (= which belonged to) his brother. (警方扣押他兄弟的所有車輛) (先行詞 vehicles 為泛指)。

最後要提的是,一般都認為當主詞用的關係詞不能省略,但事實上,只要語意夠清楚,還是可以省略的,這在 Time 和 Newsweek 雜誌上經常可以見到,如 There is a man below who wants to see you. (樓下有個人想要見你),這裡我們可以省略當主詞的關係詞 who,同樣能清楚表達原來的意思:There is a man below wants to see you.。

Born, borne (past participle, adj.)

Bear 是個相當常用的動詞,主要意為「忍受,忍耐,容忍 (通常用於否定或疑問句);帶有,具有,印有,寫有,刻有;運送,攜帶;(對某人) 懷有 (某種感受,如懷恨);生 (孩子)」。bear 的過去式為 bore,過去分詞為 borne,但作「生,生育」(to give birth) 之意時,它的過去分詞則有兩種型態:born 和 borne。

當 bear 意為「生,生育」時,born 都用在沒有 by 的被動態且當分詞形容詞用,如 He was born in Japan. (他在日本出生);The twins were born on February 15, 1969. (這對雙胞胎生於 1969 年 2 月 15 日);The baby was born to a very young woman. (這嬰兒是一位年紀非常輕的女子所生);Amy was born into a large/wealthy family. (艾美出生於一個大家庭/富裕家庭) — 請注意上面四個例句中介系詞 (in, on, to 和 into) 的用法。當形容詞用的 born 除了「出生的,誕生的」意思外,還意為「天生的,生來就有的,有天才的,命中注定的」,如 She was considered a born movie star. (她被視為天生的電影明星);He is a born leader/writer. (他是天生領袖/天才作家);She was born to succeed. (她命中注定會成功的)。注意:當 born 意為「出生的」時,be born to 後接名詞或名詞片語 (to 為介系詞),而當 born 意為「命中注定的」時,be born to 後接原形動詞 (to 為不定詞)。

當 bear 意為「生,生育」時,borne 僅當過去分詞用,主詞都是 mother, woman 或 she,如 The woman has borne three sons. (這位女人已生了三個兒子),She had borne six children. (她生過六個小孩),而且只能用於主動態,換言之,上面的例句 The baby was born to a very young woman. 不可寫成 The baby was borne to a very young woman.。

如上所述,在 bear 的其他意思上,不管動詞是主動還是被動,它的過去分詞恆為 borne,如 He has borne a grudge for many years. (他已懷恨多年);They had borne enough pain. (他們已忍受了過多的痛苦);The prisoner’s story was borne out by his wife. (那囚犯的供述為他的妻子所證實);The following points should be borne in mind. (下列要點要記住)。to bear out 和 bear in mind 都是常用的片語,前者意為「證實,為…作證,支持 (某種說法)」,後者意為「記住;考慮」。事實上,borne 亦可當形容詞用,但僅用在 “be borne in on/upon somebody” 這片語以及與名詞連用所構成的形容詞中,前者意為「為某人所意識到;為某人所瞭解」,後者意為「由…所攜帶的;由…所傳播的」:Slowly it was borne in on the citizens that the enemy had surrounded them. (市民漸漸意識到敵人已經包圍了他們);Some plants have windborne seeds. (有些植物靠風傳播種子);Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease. (瘧疾是由蚊子傳播的疾病);airborne pollution (空氣傳播的污染);airborne supply (空中補給);airborne troops ( 空降部隊)。

拼字錯誤的情況經常發生,尤其是當 bear 意為「生,生育」而用法是被動態或形容詞時,born 往往被誤寫成 borne。