語氣助動詞 – Should

Should 最常用來表示建議或勸告的「應該」。它也可用來表示責任和義務以及預期、推測或可能性的「應該」。

例句:

  • When you go to Taipei, you should visit National Palace Museum. (你去台北時應該去參觀故宮博物院) - 建議
  • You should focus more on your family and less on work. (你應該多關心家庭少關心工作) - 勸告、忠告
  • The manager really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. (經理應該在早上 7 點之前到辦公室 ) - 責任、義務
  • They should already be in Seoul by now. (他們現在應該已抵達首爾了) - 預期、推測

注意:與 ought to 的過去式 ought to have + P.P. 一樣,should 的過去式 should have + P.P. 往往是在表達與過去事實相反的情況,即「本該發生的事,但實際上卻沒發生」。例如:

  • Class should have begun at 10: 00 (but it didn’t begin until 10: 15). (課原本應該在 10 點開始上 [但直到 10 點 15 分才上])

Should 的現在、過去和未來時態用法

大多數語氣助動詞的過去和未來時態都相當不規則。下表為 should 在不同上下文中的用法說明。

Should 的用法肯定句否定句你也可以用
建議、勸告現在:My father-in-law who has high cholesterol should eat low-fat foods. (我岳父膽固醇過高,應該吃低脂食物)
過去:My father-in-law should have eaten low-fat foods. That might have prevented his heart attack. (我岳父早該吃低脂食物。那可能就防止了他心臟病發作)
未來:You really should stop drinking and driving. (你真的應該停止酒後駕車)。
現在:Jack shouldn't smoke so much. It's not good for his health. (傑克不該抽這麼多菸。這對他的健康不好)
過去:Jack shouldn't have smoked so much. That's what caused his health problems. (傑克早就不該抽這麼多菸。這就是他健康出問題的致因)
未來:Jack shouldn't smoke when he visits his elder brother next week. His sister-in-law hates when people smoke in her house. (傑克下週到他哥哥家作客時不該抽菸。他的嫂嫂討厭有人在她家抽菸)
ought to
責任、義務All operators should be at work before 8:00. (所有作業員應在 8 點之前上工)
John should finish his homework by Friday. (約翰應在星期五之前完成他的家庭作業)
I should call him and apologize. (我該打電話向他道歉)

"Should" 亦可表達一種介於建議、勸告和責任、義務之間的概念。"Be supposed to" 可表達相似的概念且可用於過去式和否定句。
沒有否定式。be supposed to
預期、推測現在:Cindy should be in London by now. (辛蒂現在應該抵達倫敦了)
過去:Cindy should have arrived in London last week. You can call her and see what she is up to. (辛蒂上週就應該抵達倫敦了。你現在可以打電話給她,看看她近日在忙什麼)
未來:Cindy should be in London by next week. Her new job starts on Monday. (辛蒂下週之前應該會抵達倫敦。她的新工作星期一就要開始了)
現在:Cindy shouldn't be in London yet. (辛蒂應該還未抵達倫敦)
過去:Cindy shouldn't have arrived in London until yesterday. (辛蒂應該是在昨天才抵達倫敦)
未來:Cindy shouldn't arrive in London until next week. (辛蒂應該下週才會抵達倫敦)
ought to, be supposed to

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