Q:”In came John.” 這句的意思是「約翰進來了」。這也是一種倒裝句嗎?

A:沒錯,這是一種倒裝句。但一般我們所見到的倒裝句大多屬於否定副詞或副詞片語被提到句首時,主詞與動詞的順序對調的倒裝;這種倒裝句跟問句一樣,係將 BE 動詞、語氣助動詞、have/has/had 或 do/does/did (當主動詞為一般動詞時) 等助動詞挪到主詞的前面。至於這些會導致句子倒裝的否定副詞或副詞片語包括 never, nowhere, no sooner. not only, neither, nor, no more, no longer, seldom, only, hardly, scarcely , barely, rarely, little, under/in no circumstances, on no account, by no means, in no way 等等。例如:

  • Never have I seen such a wicked man. (我從未見過這樣邪惡的人)
  • On no account must this employee be removed. (這個員工決不可以被解雇)
  • No sooner had I left than the rain began to come. (我剛離開雨就開始下了)
  • Very seldom do these solutions meet the needs of old people. (這些解決方案鮮少符合老人的需要)

倒裝句的目的在於「強調」(emphatic),加強語氣。倒裝句大多用在正式寫作或文學中,平常的談話或寫作鮮少使用倒裝句。例如:

  • Never have I read a more curious book. (我從未讀過一本更奇怪的書了) (比較正式)
  • I have never read a more curious book. (比較不正式)

問題的句子可謂另一種倒裝句型;不過,這種也是基於修辭需要的倒裝句僅用於 in, out, up, down, round, over, back 等表示運動方向的副詞被置於句首的情況,而且這種倒裝句不使用助動詞,而是直接將主動詞挪到主詞的前面。例如:

  • Up jumped the puppy. (小狗跳起來)
  • Out came my boss and his secretary. (我老闆和他的秘書出來了)
  • Down fell the rotten branches from the tree. (腐枝從樹上掉下來)

然而,當主詞為代名詞時,句子就不倒裝了。例如:

  • Out you go, you little rascal! (你出去,你這個小搗蛋鬼!)
  • So down to the basement I went. (於是我就下去地下室了)
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