現在完成式

句型:

has/have + 過去分詞

例句:

  • My sister has seen that movie many times. (那部電影我姊姊已看了很多遍)
  • I have not seen that movie many times. (那部電影我沒有看很多遍)
  • Have you seen that movie many times? (那部電影你有看很多遍嗎?)

用法之一:發生在現在之前某一不確定時間的動作

我們使用現在完成式來表示在現在之前某一不確定時間所發生的動作。確切時間並不重要。現在完成式不可跟 yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day 等時間明確的字、片語或子句連用。相反地,現在完成式可以跟 ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet 等時間不明確的字或片語連用。

例句:

  • We have seen that movie ten times. (那部電影我們已經看過十遍)
  • I think I have met him once before. (我想我以前見過他一次)
  • There have been many earthquakes in Japan. (日本已發生許多地震)
  • People have traveled to the moon. (人類已去過月球)
  • Cindy has never been to South Korea. (辛蒂從未去過南韓)
  • These students haven’t had lunch yet. (這些學生尚未吃午餐)
  • Nobody has ever climbed that mountain. (沒有人攀登那座山)
  • Has Nick arrived yet? (尼克到了嗎?)

現在完成式的用法重點

「不確定時間」的概念可能讓許多英文學習者感到非常困惑。事實上,「不確定時間」體現於現在完成式下列的應用:

應用之一:經驗

我們可以使用現在完成式來說明經驗。這就好像說「我有…經驗」。我們亦可使用這種時式來表示我們從未有過某種經驗。現在完成式不可用來表示特定的事件。

例句:

  • I have been to Japan. (我去過日本) - 本句是指我有到日本的經驗,可能去過一次或好幾次。
  • I have been to Japan three times. (我去過日本三次) - 我們可在句末加上次數。
  • I have never been to Japan. (我從未去過日本) - 本句是指我沒有去過日本的經驗。
  • I think I have seen that movie before. (我想我以前看過那部電影)
  • Mary has never traveled by train. (瑪麗從未搭火車旅行)
  • Joan has studied two foreign languages. (瓊安已學了兩種外語)
  • A: Have you ever met him? (你曾見過他嗎?)
    B: No, I have not met him. (沒有,我沒見過他)

應用之二:隨時間的改變

我們經常使用現在完成式來說明在一段時間內發生的變化。

例句:

  • You have grown since the last time I saw you. (自上次我見到你以來,你已長大了)
  • The government has become more interested in arts education. (政府已變得對藝術教育更有興趣)
  • Korean has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established. (自亞洲研究課程設立以來,韓文已成為本大學最受喜愛的課程之一)
  • My English has really improved since I moved to Australia. (自我搬到澳洲以來,我的英文確實有所進步)

應用之三:成就

我們經常使用現在完成式來說明個人和人類的成就,但不能提到特定時間。

例句:

  • Man has walked on the Moon. (人類已在月球漫步)
  • My son has learned how to read. (我兒子已學會閱讀)
  • Doctors have cured many deadly diseases. (醫生已治癒許多致命性疾病)
  • Scientists have split the atom. (科學家已將原子分離)

應用之四:預期的動作沒有發生

我們經常使用現在完成式來說明我們預期的動作沒有發生,而使用現在完成式是表示我們仍在等待該動作的發生。

例句:

  • Jack has not finished his homework yet. (傑克尚未完成他的家庭作業)
  • Lilly hasn’t mastered Japanese, but she can communicate. (莉莉並不精通日語,但可以溝通)
  • Stephen has still not arrived. (史蒂芬還沒到)
  • The rain hasn’t stopped. (雨沒停)

應用之五:不同時間的多個動作

我們也使用現在完成式來說明在過去不同時間發生的數個不同的動作,而使用現在完成式是表示過程還沒結束,可能發生更多的動作。

例句:

  • The army has attacked that city five times. (軍隊已五度攻打該城市)
  • I have had five quizzes and four tests so far this semester. (本學期迄今我已經考了五次小考和四次測驗)
  • We have had many major problems while working on this project. (我們在進行這項計畫時遭遇許多重大問題)
  • Susan has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick. (蘇珊已跟數名專家談過她的問題,但沒有人知道她生病的原因)

與現在完成式連用的時間詞

當我們使用現在完成式時,那就意味在現在之前的某個時間點,我們的生活中發生了某事。請記住:動作發生的確切時間並不重要。

有時當我們想要限制經驗發生的時間時,我們可以使用下列時間詞來達成目的:in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now 等等。

例句:

  • Have you been to Singapore in the last year? (過去一年來你有去過新加坡嗎?)
  • I have seen that movie six times in the last month. (過去一個月來我已看了那部電影六遍)
  • They have had three tests in the last week. (過去一週來他們已考了三次測驗)
  • Cindy graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far. (辛蒂在不到三年前大學畢業。截至目前她已換了三家不同的公司)
  • My car has broken down three times this week. (我的車子這個禮拜已故障三次)

注意:

“last year” (去年) 和 “in the last year” (過去一年,即今天之前的 365 天) 意義上是截然不同的。last year 被視為特定時間,須用在簡單過去式中,而 in the last year 並非特定時間,所以須與現在完成式連用。至於 “last month” (上個月) 和 “in the last month” (過去一個月) 以及 “last week” (上週) 和 “in the last week” (過去一週) 等,其意義亦作同樣解讀。

例句:

  • I went to Canada last year. (去年我去加拿大) - 我是在去年去加拿大
  • I have been to Canada in the last year. (過去一年來我已去過加拿大) - 在今天之前的 365 天期間的某個時間點,我至少去過加拿大一次。

用法之二:從過去持續到現在的時間 (非進行式動詞)

對於非進行式動詞及若干混合動詞的非進行式用法,我們使用現在完成式來表示某事發生在過去且一直持續到現在。for ten minutes, for two weeks, since Thursday 等等,都是可與現在完成式連用的時間副詞片語。

例句:

  • My grandmother has had a cold for two weeks. (我奶奶已感冒兩個禮拜)
  • Amy has been in Taipei for six months. (艾美已在台北六個月)
  • John has loved chocolate since he was a little boy. (約翰從小就喜歡巧克力)

雖然上面的現在完成式用法通常僅限於非進行式動詞及若干混合動詞的非進行式用法,但 live, work, teach 和 study 等普通動詞有時也這樣用。

副詞的位置

always, usually, only, never, ever, still, just 等副詞通常位在助動詞 have/has 的後面,即位在 have/has 和過去分詞之間。

例句:

  • They have only seen that movie one time. (他們只看過那部電影一遍)
  • Have they only seen that movie one time? (他們只看過那部電影一遍嗎?)
  • My sister has never seen that movie. (我姊姊從未看過那部電影)

主動態/被動態

例句:

  • Many tourists have visited that museum. (許多遊客已參觀了那座博物館) - 主動態
  • That museum has been visited by many tourists. (那座博物館已被許多遊客參觀過) - 被動態
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One Comment

  1. 請問老師,我想表示”他曾經是我同事”是不是使用現在完成式:
    He has been my colleague.那後面是不是不能再加when i worked at 7-11.因為是確切時間?
    另外,He was my colleague.是不是給人一種He已經不在人世的感覺?
    謝謝。

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