Would Always

型態

would always + 原形動詞

例句:

  • David would always play basketball at weekends when he studied at a medical college in New York. (大衛在紐約唸醫學院時週末常常打籃球)
  • Would David always play basketball at weekends when he studied at a medical college in New York? (大衛在紐約唸醫學院時週末常常打籃球嗎?)
  • David would not always play basketball at weekends when he studied at a medical college in New York. (大衛在紐約唸醫學院時週末不常打籃球)

用法:過去的習慣

與 used to 和過去簡單式一樣,”would always” 是在表示一種已在過去終止的舊習慣。它用來敘述過去不斷重複或重複很多次的動作,但現在通常不做了。然而,與 used to 和過去簡單式不同的是,would always 是指某人樂於或自願做那個動作,而且有時是在表達對該習慣感到厭煩或感到有趣。它也經常表示該舊習慣做過頭了。若要表達相反的概念,我們可以用 “would never” 來表示某人過去從不做某事,但現在卻做了。

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未來完成進行式

型態

英文的未來完成進行式有兩種不同的型態,即 “will have been doing” 和 “be going to have been doing”。與未來簡單式不同的是,這兩種未來完成進行式通常可以互換。

Will 型態的未來完成進行式

will have been + 現在分詞

例句:

  • Bill will have been waiting for more than two hours when Brooke’s plane finally arrives. (當布魯克的飛機終於抵達時,比爾將已等候了超過兩個小時)
  • Will Bill have been waiting for more than two hours when Brooke’s plane finally arrives? (當布魯克的飛機終於抵達時,比爾將已等候超過兩個小時了嗎?)
  • Bill will not have been waiting for more than two hours when Brooke’s plane finally arrives. (當布魯克的飛機終於抵達時,比爾將沒有等候超過兩個小時)

Be going to 型態的未來完成進行式

am/is/are + going to have been + 現在分詞

例句:

  • Bill is going to have been waiting for more than two hours when Brooke’s plane finally arrives. (當布魯克的飛機終於抵達時,比爾將已等候了超過兩個小時)
  • Is Bill going to have been waiting for more than two hours when Brooke’s plane finally arrives? (當布魯克的飛機終於抵達時,比爾將已等候超過兩個小時了嗎?)
  • Bill is not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when Brooke’s plane finally arrives. (當布魯克的飛機終於抵達時,比爾將沒有等候超過兩個小時)

注意:

Will 型態的未來完成進行式和 be going to 型態的未來完成進行式,意思並無差異。再者,未來完成進行式經常與 by the time 連用來表示「(到了) … 的時候;在 … 之前」或與 when 連用來表示「當 … 的時候」的意思。

用法之一:未來簡單式的動作發生之前或未來某一特定時間之前已持續的一段時間

我們使用未來完成進行式來表示某個動作或某事件發生在過去且一直持續到未來簡單式的動作發生時或持續至未來某一特定時間。for ten minutes, for two weeks 等等,都是可與未來完成進行式連用的時間副詞片語。注意:未來完成進行式與現在完成進行式和過去完成進行式一樣,都是在表示某個動作或某事件持續的一段時間,但未來完成進行式所持續的時間是止於未來某個參考點或某個參考點之前。

例句:

  • They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Carl arrives. (在卡爾到達之前,他們將已交談了逾一個小時)
  • Carla is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes. (在那家公司最終關門大吉時,卡拉將已在該公司工作了三年)
  • Tom will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Europe. (湯姆在前往歐洲之前將已在這所大學教了逾一年的書)
  • How long will you have been studying when you graduate? (當你畢業時,你將已唸了多久的書呢?)
  • A: When you finish your English course, will you have been living in Australia for over a year? (當你完成你的英文課程時,你將已在澳洲居住超過一年了嗎?)
    B: No, I will not have been living here that long. (沒有,我在這裡將沒有住那麼久)

注意:在上面的例句中,未來的參考點,亦即時間副詞子句中的動詞,它們的時態是現在簡單式而非未來簡單式。這是因為在 when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if 和 unless 等所引導的時間副詞子句中,不能使用表示未來的 will 或 be going to。

用法之二:未來發生的某個動作或某事件的原因

我們可以使用未來完成進行式來表示該動作或事件與未來簡單式的動作或事件的因果關係。

例句:

  • Chad will be very tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over two hours. (查德回家時將會很疲憊,因為屆時他將已慢跑了逾兩小時)
  • Lisa’s English will be perfect when she returns to Taiwan because she is going to have been studying English in the United States for over three years. (麗莎返回台灣時將精通英文,因為屆時她將已在美國學了逾三年的英文)

未來進行式 vs. 未來完成進行式

若句中沒有 for ten minutes, for two weeks, since Thursday 等時間副詞片語,許多英語人士在說話時都會選擇使用未來進行式,而不使用未來完成進行式。然而,由於這會改變句子的意思,因此使用時必須謹慎小心,以免造成意思上的誤解。未來進行式強調該動作發生在未來簡單式的動作或未來某個時間點之前,而在未來簡單式的動作發生時,該動作可能就結束了,亦可能仍在進行中。而未來完成進行式則強調該動作持續到未來簡單式的動作發生時的時間。試研究下面的例句以瞭解它們之間的差異。

例句:

  • He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard. (他將會累,因為屆時他將正在激烈地運動) - 這句強調他之所以累,是因為他在未來的那個時候正在運動。
  • He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard. (他將會累,因為他將一直激烈地運動) - 這句強調他之所以累,是因為他已運動一段時間。未來完成進行式的動作在未來簡單式的動作或狀態發生時可能還在持續中,但也可能已告結束。

切記時間子句中不可使用未來式

與其他未來式時態一樣,在 when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if 和 unless 等所引導的時間副詞子句中,不可使用未來完成進行式;反之,須使用現在完成進行式來取代未來完成進行式。

例句:

  • Jimmy won’t get a promotion until he has been working here as long as Tony. (吉米在這裡工作得跟東尼一樣久之前將不會獲得晉升) (正)
  • Jimmy won’t get a promotion until he will have been working here as long as Tony. (誤)

亦要切記非進行式動詞及若干混合動詞的非進行式用法

切記非進行式動詞不能用於任何進行式時態。再者,若干非進行式含意
的混合動詞亦不能用於進行式。對於這些不能用未來完成進行式的動詞,我們必須使用未來完成式。

例句:

  • Ted will have been having his driver’s license for over two years. (泰德將已持有駕照超過兩年了) (誤)
  • Ted will have had his driver’s license for over two years. (正)

副詞的位置

always, usually, only, never, ever, still, just 等副詞通常位在 will 和 BE 動詞的後面。

例句:

  • You will only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives. (當她的飛機抵達時,你將只等候了幾分鐘)
  • Will you only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives? (當她的飛機抵達時,你將只等候了幾分鐘嗎?)
  • You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives. (當她的飛機抵達時,你將只等候了幾分鐘)
  • Are you only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives? (當她的飛機抵達時,你將只等候了幾分鐘嗎?)

主動態/被動態

例句:

  • The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over one year by the time it is finished. (到了這幅壁畫被完成時,這位名畫家將已畫了超過一年) - 主動態
  • The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over one year by the time it is finished. (到了這幅壁畫被完成時,這幅畫將已被這位名畫家畫了超過一年) - 被動態
  • The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over one year by the time it is finished. - 主動態
  • The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over one year by the time it is finished. - 被動態

注意:從上面的例句可知,未來完成進行式的被動態句型顯得十分不自然,因此未來完成進行式鮮少使用被動態。

未來完成式

型態

英文的未來完成式有兩種不同的型態,即 “will have done” 和 “be going to have done”。與未來簡單式不同的是,這兩種未來完成式通常可以互換。

Will 型態的未來完成式

will have + 過去分詞

例句:

  • Simon will have perfected his English by the time he comes back from the U.S. (賽蒙從美國回來的時候,他的英文將已精進)
  • Will Simon have perfected his English by the time he comes back from the U.S.? (賽蒙從美國回來的時候,他的英文將已精進了嗎?)
  • Simon will not have perfected his English by the time he comes back from the U.S. (賽蒙從美國回來的時候,他的英文將不會更加精進)

Be going to 型態的未來完成式

am/is/are + going to have + 過去分詞

例句:

  • You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S. (你從美國回來的時候,你的英文將已精進)
  • Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.? (你從美國回來的時候,你的英文將已精進了嗎?)
  • You are not going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S. (你從美國回來的時候,你的英文將不會更加精進)

注意:

Will 型態的未來完成式和 be going to 型態的未來完成式,意思並無差異。再者,未來完成式經常與 by (the time) 和 before 連用來表示「(到了) … 的時候;在 … 之前」的意思。

用法之一:未來簡單式的動作發生之前或未來某一特定時間之前已完成的動作

未來完成式係用來表示該動作發生在未來簡單式的動作之前。未來完成式亦可用來表示該動作發生在未來某一特定時間之前。

例句:

  • By next July, I will have received my promotion. (到了明年七月,我將已獲得晉升)
  • By the time Mark gets home, his wife is going to have cleaned the entire house. (馬克回家的時候,他太太將已打掃好整間房子)
  • I am not going to have finished dinner by 7 o’clock. (我在七點之前將不會吃完晚餐)
  • Will Mandy have learned enough Arabic to communicate before she moves to Dubai? (曼蒂在搬去杜拜之前將已學會足夠溝通的阿拉伯文了嗎?)
  • Larry is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon. (到了賴瑞今天下午離開的時候,他可能將已完成這項提案)
  • By the time Pauline finishes that course, she will have taken ten tests. (寶琳完成該項課程時,她將已考了十次試)
  • How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you turn 50? (你在五十歲之前將已造訪了多少國家呢?)

注意:上面由 by the time 和 before 所引導的子句是使用現在簡單式而非未來簡單式,這是因為在時間副詞子句中,不能使用表示未來的 will 或 be going to。

用法之二:未來簡單式的動作發生之前已持續的一段時間 (非進行式動詞)

對於非進行式動詞及若干非進行式含意的混合動詞,我們使用未來完成式來表示該狀態持續至未來簡單式的動作發生時的時間。

例句:

  • By the time Susan moves to Tokyo, she will have lived in Taipei for five years. (到了蘇珊搬去東京的時候,她將已在台北住了五年.)
  • I will have been in Los Angeles for six months by the time I leave. (到了我離開的時候,我將已在洛杉磯待了六個月)
  • By Sunday, Cindy is going to have married for a week. (到了星期天,辛蒂將已結婚一個禮拜了)

雖然上述的未來完成式用法通常僅限於非進行式動詞及若干混合動詞的非進行式用法,但 “live”、”work,”、”teach” 和 “study” 等動詞雖不是非進行式動詞,但有時也這樣用。

切記時間子句中不可使用未來式

與其他未來式時態一樣,在 when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if 和 unless 等所引導的時間副詞子句中,不可使用未來完成式;反之,須使用現在完成式來取代未來完成式。

例句:

  • I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. (當我做完家庭作業時,我將要去看電影) (正)
  • I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. (誤)

副詞的位置

always, usually, only, never, ever, still, just 等副詞通常位在 will 和 BE 動詞的後面。

例句:

  • You will only have learned a few words. (你將只學會了幾個字)
  • Will Lewis only have learned a few words? (路易斯將只學會了幾個字嗎?)
  • You are only going to have learned a few words. (你將只學會了幾個字)
  • Is Lewis only going to have learned a few words? (路易斯將只學會了幾個字嗎?)

主動態/被動態

例句:

  • They will have completed the project before the deadline. (在截止期限之前,他們將已完成這項計畫) - 主動態
  • The project will have been completed before the deadline. (在截止期限之前,這項計畫將已被完成) - 被動態
  • They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. (在截止期限之前,他們將已完成這項計畫) - 主動態
  • The project is going to have been completed before the deadline. (在截止期限之前,這項計畫將已被完成) - 被動態

未來進行式

型態

英文的未來進行式有兩種不同的型態,即 “will be doing” 和 “be going to be doing”。與未來簡單式不同的是,這兩種未來進行式通常可以互換。

Will 型態的未來進行式

will be + 現在分詞

例句:

  • Bill will be waiting for Brooke when her plane arrives tonight. (今晚布魯克的飛機抵達時,比爾將正在等她)
  • Will Bill be waiting for Brooke when her plane arrives tonight? (今晚布魯克的飛機抵達時,比爾將正在等她嗎?)
  • Bill will not be waiting for Brooke when her plane arrives tonight. (今晚布魯克的飛機抵達時,比爾將沒有在等她)

Be going to 型態的未來進行式

am/is/are + going to be + 現在分詞

例句:

  • Bill is going to be waiting for Brooke when her plane arrives tonight. (今晚布魯克的飛機抵達時,比爾將正在等她)
  • Is Bill going to be waiting for Brooke when her plane arrives tonight? (今晚布魯克的飛機抵達時,比爾將正在等她嗎?)
  • Bill is not going to be waiting for Brooke when her plane arrives tonight. (今晚布魯克的飛機抵達時,比爾將沒有在等她)

記住:

Will 型態的未來進行式和 be going to 型態的未來進行式,意思並無差異。

用法之一:未來進行式的動作發生在未來簡單式的動作之前

未來進行式係用來表示該動作發生在未來簡單式的動作之前且一直持續到未來簡單式的動作發生時,而在未來簡單式的動作發生時,該動作可能就結束了,亦可能仍在進行中。

例句:

  • I will be watching TV when Amy arrives tonight. (艾美今晚到達時,我將正在看電視)
  • John will be waiting for you when your bus arrives. (你的巴士抵達時,約翰將正在等你)
  • I am going to be staying at the Capital Hotel, if anything happens and you need to contact me. (我要住在首都飯店,如果有事發生而你需要跟我聯絡的話)
  • Danny will be studying at the library tonight, so he will not see Barbara when she arrives. (丹尼今晚要去圖書館唸書,所以當芭芭拉到達時,他將不會見到她)

注意:在上面的例句中,時間副詞子句中的動詞時態是現在簡單式而非未來簡單式。這是因為在 when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if 和 unless 等所引導的時間副詞子句中,不能使用表示未來的 will 或 be going to。

用法之二:未來進行式的動作發生在未來某個時間點之前

在用法之一中,未來進行式的動作是發生在未來簡單式的動作之前。然而,未來進行式的動作亦可能發生在未來某個特定時間點之前。

例句:

  • This time next week I will be working in the garden. (下週這個時候我將正在花園幹活)
  • They’ll be having a meeting at ten o’clock tomorrow morning. (明天上午十點他們將正在開會)
  • We are going to be watching TV at eight this evening. (今晚八點我們將正在看電視)

重點提示

在未來簡單式中,某個特定時間點是用來表示未來某個動作的開始或結束,但在未來進行式中,某個特定時間點係表示未來某個動作在該時間點還在進行中。

例句:

  • This time next week I will be working in the garden. (下週這個時候我將正在花園幹活) - 我將在下週這個時候之前開始在花園幹活,而到了下週這個時候,我還在幹活。
  • They’ll be having a meeting at ten o’clock tomorrow morning. (明天上午十點他們將正在開會) - 他們將在明天上午十點之前開始開會,而到了十點,他們還在開會。
  • We are going to be watching TV at eight this evening. (今晚八點我們將正在看電視) - 我們將在今晚八點之前開始看電視,而到了八點,我們還在看電視。

用法之三:未來同時進行中的動作

同一句中的兩個動作若都是未來進行式,則表示這兩個動作同時正在進行中。

例句:

  • I am going to be studying and my girlfriend is going to be making dinner. (我在唸書時,我女友將正在做晚餐)
  • Tonight, they will be eating dinner, gossiping, and having a good time. (今晚他們將一邊吃晚餐,一邊聊八卦,過得很愉快)
  • While Allen is surfing the Internet, Tim will be watching television. (艾倫在上網時,提姆將正在看電視) - 注意這裡使用 “is surfing”,因為那是 while 所引導的時間子句。

用法之四:氣氛 (atmosphere)

在英文中,我們經常使用一連串同時發生的動作來敘述未來某一特定時間的氣氛。

例句:

  • When I arrive at the party, everybody is going to be celebrating. Some will be dancing. Others are going to be talking. A few people will be eating pizza and several other people are going to be drinking beer. They always do the same thing. (當我到達派對現場時,每個人都將正在狂歡慶祝。有些人正在跳舞,有些人則正在談話。有幾個人正在吃披薩,另有幾個人正在暢飲啤酒。他們向來如此)

切記時間子句中不可使用未來式

與其他未來式時態一樣,在 when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if 和 unless 等所引導的時間副詞子句中,不可使用未來進行式;反之,須使用現在進行式來取代未來進行式。

例句:

  • While I am doing my homework, my girlfriend is going to make dinner. (當我正在做家庭作業時,我女友將會去做晚餐) (正)
  • While I am going to be doing my homework, my girlfriend is going to make dinner. (誤)

亦要切記非進行式動詞及若干混合動詞的非進行式用法

切記非進行式動詞不能用於任何進行式時態。再者,若干非進行式含意的混合動詞亦不能用於進行式。對於這些不能用未來進行式的動詞,我們必須使用未來簡單式。

例句:

  • Fiona will be being at my house when you arrive. (當你到達時,費歐娜將正在我家) (誤)
  • Fiona will be at my house when you arrive. (正)

副詞的位置

always, usually, only, never, ever, still, just 等副詞通常位在 will 和 BE 動詞的後面。

例句:

  • Bill will still be waiting for Brooke when her plane arrives tonight. (今晚布魯克的飛機抵達時,比爾將還在等她)
  • Will Bill still be waiting for Brooke when her plane arrives tonight? (今晚布魯克的飛機抵達時,比爾將還在等她嗎?)
  • Bill is still going to be waiting for Brooke when her plane arrives tonight. (今晚布魯克的飛機抵達時,比爾將還在等她)
  • Is Bill still going to be waiting for Brooke when her plane arrives tonight? (今晚布魯克的飛機抵達時,比爾將還在等她嗎?)

主動態/被動態

例句:

  • At 8:00 PM tonight, Jason will be washing the dishes. (今晚八點傑森將正在洗碗) - 主動態
  • At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by Jason. (今晚八點碗盤將正在被傑森洗) - 被動態
  • At 8:00 PM tonight, Jason is going to be washing the dishes. - 主動態
  • At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by Jason. - 被動態

注意:從上面的例句可知,未來進行式的被動態句型顯得十分不自然,因此未來進行式鮮少使用被動態。

未來簡單式

型態

英文的未來簡單式有兩種不同的型態,即 “will” 和 “be going to”。雖然這兩種型態有時可以互換,但它們通常表示兩種截然不同的意思。這兩個不同的意思起初可能讓人覺得太抽象,但經過一段時間的練習後,它們之間的差異將會變得顯而易見。”will” 和 “be going to” 均指未來某一特定時間。

Will 型態

will + 原形動詞

例句:

  • Gina will help him later. (吉娜稍後將幫他)
  • Will Gina help him later? (吉娜稍後將幫他嗎?)
  • Gina will not help him later. (吉娜稍後不會幫他)

Be going to 型態

am/is/are + going to + 原形動詞

例句:

  • John is going to have dinner with Louise tonight. (約翰今晚將與露薏絲共進晚餐)
  • Is John going to have dinner with Louise tonight? (約翰今晚將與露薏絲共進晚餐嗎?)
  • John is not going to have dinner with Louise tonight. (約翰今晚不與露薏絲共進晚餐)

用法之一:”will” 是在表示意願

“will” 通常表示說話者自己願意做某事,亦即說話者自願為某人做某事。我們往往使用 will 來回應別人的抱怨或請求。我們也使用 will 來要求或請求別人幫助我們或自願為我們做某事。同樣地,我們可以使用 “will not” 或 “won’t” 來表示不願做某事。

例句:

  • I will remit the money to you when I get it. (當我拿到那筆錢時,我會把它匯給你)
  • I will translate the contract from English into Chinese. (我會把這份英文合約翻成中文)
  • Will you help me move this heavy dining table? (你願意幫我移動這張笨重的餐桌嗎?)
  • Will you make dinner? (你願意做晚飯嗎?)
  • I will not do your homework for you. (我不會幫你做家庭作業)
  • I won’t lend any money to him. (我不要借錢給他)
  • A: I’m really hungry. (我很餓)
    B: I’ll make some spaghetti. (我去做些義大利麵)
  • A: I’m so tired. I’m about to fall asleep. (我很累。我快要睡著了)
    B: I’ll get you a coffee. (我去給你弄杯咖啡)
  • A: The phone is ringing. (電話響了)
    B: I’ll get it. (我去接)

用法之二:”will” 是在表示承諾

“will” 經常用在承諾中。

例句:

  • I will call you when I arrive. (我到達時會打電話給你)
  • If I am elected President of the Republic of China, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance. (如果我當選中華民國總統,我會確保人人享有低費率的健保)
  • I promise I will not tell your wife about the pay raise. (我保證不會把加薪的事告訴你太太)
  • Don’t worry, I’ll be careful. (別擔心,我會小心謹慎的)
  • I won’t tell anyone your secret. (我不會把你的秘密告訴任何人)

用法之三:”be going to” 是在表示計畫

“be going to” 是在表示事情是經過事先計畫的。它是表示一個人未來想要或打算做某事,至於計畫是否可行或能不能實現,則無關緊要。

例句:

  • Albert is going to spend his vacation in Hokkaido. (亞伯特要去北海道度假)
  • Jenny is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii. (珍妮不去夏威夷度假)
  • A: When are we going to meet each other tonight? (我們今晚什麼時候見面呢?)
    B: We are going to meet at 7 PM. (我們要在下午七點碰面)
  • I’m going to be an actor when I grow up. (長大後我要做個演員)
  • Mike is going to begin medical school next year. (麥可明年就要開始唸醫學院了)
  • They are going to drive all the way to Taipei. (他們要一路開車到台北)
  • Who are you going to invite to the party? (你要邀請誰參加派對呢?)
  • A: Who is going to make Jacob’s birthday cake? (誰要做雅各的生日蛋糕呢?)
    B: Mandy is going to make Jacob’s birthday cake. (曼蒂要做雅各的生日蛋糕)

用法之四:”will” 和 “be going to” 皆可表示對未來的預測

“will” 和 “be going to” 皆可表示對未來的一般性預測,但 will 通常表示主觀的預測,而 be going to 是表示根據客觀情況所做的預測,如 Look at the sky. It’s going to rain. (看看天空,就快要下雨了 - 因為說話當時,天空烏雲密佈)。然而,在以 will 和 be going to 表示預測的句子中,主詞通常無法掌控未來可能發生的事情,所以用法之一至用法之三並不適用。在下面的例句中,它們的意思並無差異。

例句:

  • The year 2100 will be a very interesting year. (2100 年可能會是非常有趣的一年)
  • The year 2100 is going to be a very interesting year. (2100 年可能會是非常有趣的一年)
  • John Cena will be the next President. (約翰‧席納可能會是下任總統)
  • John Cena is going to be the next President. (約翰‧席納可能會是下任總統)
  • The movie “Life of Pi” will win several Academy Awards. (《少年Pi的奇幻漂流》可能會贏得數項奧斯卡大獎)
  • The movie “Life of Pi” is going to win several Academy Awards. (《少年Pi的奇幻漂流》可能會贏得數項奧斯卡大獎)

重點提示

在未來簡單式中,說話者心裡想的是那種用法,往往不得而知,所以一個句子的意思通常有一種以上的詮釋。

時間子句中不可使用未來式

在 when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if 和 unless 等所引導的時間副詞子句中,絕不能使用表示未來的 will 或 be going to。

例句:

  • When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. (今晚你到達時,我們就外出用餐) (正)
  • When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. (誤)
  • I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. (我做完家庭作業後要去看電影) (正)
    = I am going to see a movie after I finish my homework.
  • I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. (誤)

副詞的位置

always, usually, only, never, ever, still, just 等副詞通常位在 will 或 BE 動詞之後。

例句:

  • He will never help you again. (他再也不會幫你了)
  • Will you ever help him again? (你還會再幫他嗎?)
  • Carla is never going to meet Arthur. (卡拉永遠都不要再遇到亞瑟)
  • Are you ever going to meet Janet? (你還要再遇到珍妮嗎?)

主動態/被動態

例句:

  • David will finish the work by 6:00 PM. (大衛將在下午六點之前完成這項工作) - 主動態
  • The work will be finished by 6:00 PM. (這項工作將在下午六點之前被完成) - 被動態
  • Teresa is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. (泰瑞莎今晚將做一頓很棒的晚餐) - 主動態
  • A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Teresa tonight. (泰瑞莎今晚將做一頓很棒的晚餐) - 被動態

過去完成進行式

句型

had + been + 現在分詞

例句:

  • He had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived. (當她終於抵達時,他已在那裡等了超過兩小時)
  • Had he been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived? (當她終於抵達時,他已在那裡等了超過兩小時嗎?)
  • He had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived. (當她終於抵達時,他在那裡並沒有等了超過兩小時)

用法之一:發生在過去的某個動作或某事件持續至過去另一動作或另一事件的時間

我們使用過去完成進行式來表示某個動作或某事件發生在過去且一直持續到以過去簡單式來表示的另一動作或另一事件。for ten minutes, for two weeks 等等,都是可與過去完成進行式連用的時間副詞片語。

例句:

  • They had been talking for over an hour before Carl arrived. (在卡爾到達之前,他們已交談了逾一個小時)
  • Carla had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business. (在那家公司歇業時,卡拉已在該公司工作了三年)
  • How long had you been waiting to get on the bus? (你等多久才坐上公車呢?)
  • Allen wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work. (艾倫想要坐下來,因為他整天都站著工作)
  • Tom had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Europe. (湯姆在前往歐洲之前已在這所大學教了逾一年的書)
  • A: How long had you been studying Thai before you moved to Bangkok? (你在搬到曼谷之前已學了多久的泰語呢?)
    B: I had not been studying Thai very long. (我學泰語沒有很久)

用法之二:過去發生的某個動作或某事件的原因

我們可以使用過去完成進行式來表示該動作或事件與過去簡單式的動作或事件的因果關係。

例句:

  • Barry failed the final test because he had not been attending class. (貝瑞期末考不及格,因為他一直沒來上課)
  • Kevin was very tired because he had been washing cars. (凱文非常疲憊,因為他一直在洗車)
  • Amy gained weight because she had been overeating. (艾美體重增加了,因為她一直暴飲暴食)

過去進行式 vs. 過去完成進行式

若句中沒有 for ten minutes, for two weeks, since Thursday 等時間副詞片語,許多英語人士在說話時都會選擇使用過去進行式,而不使用過去完成進行式。然而,由於這會改變句子的意思,因此使用時必須謹慎小心,以免造成意思上的誤解。過去進行式強調該動作發生在過去簡單式的動作或過去某個時間點之前,而在過去簡單式的動作發生時,該動作可能就結束了,亦可能仍在進行中。而過去完成進行式則強調該動作持續到過去簡單式的動作發生時的時間。試研究下面的例句以瞭解它們之間的差異。

例句:

  • He was tired because he was exercising so hard. (他累了,因為他正激烈地運動) - 這句強調他之所以累,是因為他那時候正在運動。
  • He was tired because he had been exercising so hard. (他累了,因為他一直激烈地運動) - 這句強調他之所以累,是因為他已運動一段時間。過去完成進行式的動作在過去簡單式的動作或狀態生時可能還在持續中,但也可能已告結束。

切記非進行式動詞及若干混合動詞的非進行式用法

我們必須記住非進行式動詞及若干混合動詞的非進行式用法,它們不能用於任何進行式時態。換言之,這些動詞必須使用過去完成式,不可使用過去完成進行式。

例句:

  • The bicycle had been belonging to Larry for years before Thomas bought it. (多年來那部腳踏車一直是賴瑞的,後來湯瑪斯把它買走了) (誤)
  • The bicycle had belonged to Larry for years before Thomas bought it. (多年來那部腳踏車一直是賴瑞的,後來湯瑪斯把它買走了) (正)

副詞的位置

always, usually, only, never, ever, still, just 等副詞通常位在助動詞 had 的後面,即位在 had 和過去分詞之間。

例句:

  • Roger had only been waiting there for a few minutes when Stella arrived. (當史泰拉抵達時,羅傑僅在那裡等了幾分鐘)
  • Had Roger only been waiting there for a few minutes when Stella arrived? (當史泰拉抵達時,羅傑僅在那裡等了幾分鐘嗎?)

主動態/被動態

例句:

  • Chef Smith had been preparing the restaurant’s fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Milan. (主廚史密斯在搬到米蘭之前已為這家餐廳做了兩年精美好吃的晚餐) - 主動態
  • The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Smith for two years before he moved to Milan. (在主廚史密斯搬到米蘭之前,兩年來這家餐廳精美好吃的晚餐都是由他所做) - 被動態

注意:從上面的例句可知,過去完成進行式的被動態句型顯得十分不自然,因此過去完成進行式鮮少使用被動態。

過去完成式

句型

had + 過去分詞

例句:

  • Mr. Chen had studied English before he moved to San Francisco. (陳先生搬到舊金山之前已學了英文)
  • Had Mr. Chen studied English before he moved to San Francisco? (陳先生搬到舊金山之前已學了英文嗎?)
  • Mr. Chen had not studied English before he moved to San Francisco. (陳先生搬到舊金山之前沒有學英文)

用法之一:發生在過去某個動作或某一特定時間之前的動作

過去完成式係用來表示發生在過去某個動作之前的動作;它亦可用來表示發生在過去某一特定時間之前的動作。換言之,在過去兩個先後發生的動作中,發生在前的動作用過去完成式,而發生在後的動作用過去簡單式。

例句:

  • I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Pescadores. (在我去澎湖之前,我從未看過這麼美麗的海灘)
  • I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet. (我身無分文,因為我遺失了錢包)
  • Sam knew Bangkok so well because he had visited the city several times. (山姆對曼谷瞭若指掌,因為他已去過該市好幾趟)
  • Had Cindy ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand? (辛蒂搬到泰國之前有學過泰語嗎?)
  • Patricia had never been to a concert before last night. (在昨晚之前,派翠西亞從未聽過演唱會)
  • We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance. (我們沒有飯店房間可住,因為我們事先沒有預訂)
  • A: Had you ever visited the U.K. before your trip in 2011? (在 2011 年的英國行之前,你有去過英國嗎?)
    B: Yes, I had been to the U.K. once before. (有,我之前去過一次)

用法之二:從過去持續到過去另一個動作的時間 (非進行式動詞)

對於非進行式動詞及若干混合動詞的非進行式用法,我們使用過去完成式來表示某事發生在過去且一直持續到過去的另一個動作。

例句:

  • We had had that car for ten years before it broke down. (那部車在發生故障之前,我們已經開了十年)
  • By the time Allen finished his studies, he had been in New York for over eight years. (到了艾倫完成他的學業,他已在紐約待了超過八年)
  • They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years. (他們對於賣掉那間房子感到難過,因為那房子他們已住了超過四十年)

雖然上述的過去完成式用法通常僅限於非進行式動詞及若干混合動詞的非進行式用法,但 “live”、”work,”、”teach” 和 “study” 等動詞雖不是非進行式動詞,但有時也這樣用。

重點提示:過去完成式與特定時間

與現在完成式不同的是,雖然過去完成式亦可與時間副詞或副詞片語連用,但這通常不必要。

例句:

  • She had visited her American relatives once in 2008 before she moved in with them in 2012. (她在 2012 年搬去和她的美國親戚一塊住之前,僅在 2008 年拜訪過他們一次)

此外

如果過去完成式的動作是發生在某一特定時間,那麼當句中使用了 “before” 或 “after” 時,我們可以使用過去簡單式來代替過去完成式,因為 “before” 和 “after” 已告訴我們那個動作先發生,所以使不使用過去完成式都可以。因此,下面兩句都對。

例句:

  • She had visited her American relatives once in 2008 before she moved in with them in 2012.
  • She visited her American relatives once in 2008 before she moved in with them in 2012.

然而

如果過去完成式不是指發生在某一特定時間的動作,那麼就一定要使用過去完成式。以下面兩句為例,過去完成式是指缺乏某種經驗而非發生在某一特定時間的動作,因此不可使用過去簡單式。

例句:

  • Katie had never seen a polar bear before she moved to Canada. (凱蒂在搬到加拿大之前從未看過北極熊) (正)
  • Katie never saw a polar bear before she moved to Canada. (誤)

副詞的位置

always, usually, only, never, ever, still, just 等副詞通常位在助動詞 had 的後面,即位在 had 和過去分詞之間。

例句:

  • Daniel had previously studied Japanese before he moved to Japan. (丹尼爾在搬到日本之前已先學了日語)
  • Had Daniel previously studied Japanese before he moved to Japan? (丹尼爾在搬到日本之前已先學了日語嗎?)

主動態/被動態

例句:

  • Tim had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license. (提姆在取得機工執照之前已修理過許多車輛) - 主動態
  • Many cars had been repaired by Tim before he received his mechanic’s license. (在提姆取得機工執照之前,已有許多車輛被他修理過) - 被動態

過去進行式

句型

was/were + 現在分詞

例句:

  • I was studying when Anna called. (安娜來電時我正在唸書)
  • Were you studying when Brenda called? (布蘭達來電時你正在唸書嗎?)
  • He was not studying when Frank called. (法蘭克來電時他沒有在唸書)

用法之一:過去進行式的動作發生在過去簡單式的動作之前

過去進行式係用來表示該動作發生在過去簡單式的動作之前且一直持續到過去簡單式的動作發生時,而在過去簡單式的動作發生時,該動作可能就結束了,亦可能仍在進行中。

例句:

  • I was watching TV when Sam called. (山姆來電時,我正在看電視)
  • When the phone rang, I was writing a letter. (電話響起時,我正在寫信)
  • While they were having the picnic, it started to rain. (他們正在野餐時,天就下起雨來了)
  • What were you doing when the earthquake started? (地震發生時,你正在做什麼呢?)
  • I was listening to my iPod, so I didn’t hear the fire alarm. (當時我正在聽 iPod,所以沒有聽到火災警報)
  • You were not listening to me when I told you to turn the air conditioner off. (我叫你關掉冷氣時,你沒有聽見)
  • While Mary was sleeping last night, someone stole her car. (昨晚瑪麗在睡覺時,有人偷了她的車子)
  • Paul was waiting for us when we got off the plane. (我們下機時,保羅正在等我們)
  • While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off. (我在寫電子郵件時,電腦突然當機了)
  • A: What were you doing when you broke your leg? (你摔斷腿時正在做什麼呢?)
    B: I was skateboarding. (我正在溜滑板)

用法之二:過去進行式的動作發生在過去某個時間點之前

在用法之一中,過去進行式的動作是發生在過去簡單式的動作之前。然而,過去進行式的動作亦可能發生在過去某個特定時間點之前。

例句:

  • Last night at 7 PM, I was eating dinner. (昨晚七點我正在吃晚餐)
  • At midnight, we were still driving through the desert. (午夜時我們還在開車經過沙漠)
  • Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work. (昨天這個時候我正坐在公司的辦公桌前)

重點提示

在過去簡單式中,某個特定時間點是用來表示某個動作的開始或結束,但在過去進行式中,某個特定時間點係表示某個動作在該時間點還在進行中。

例句:

  • Last night at 7 PM, I ate dinner. (昨晚我七點吃晚餐) - 我昨晚七點開始吃晚餐
  • Last night at 7 PM, I was eating dinner. (昨晚七點我正在吃晚餐) - 昨晚我在七點之前開始吃晚餐,而在七點時,我還在用餐中。

用法之三:過去同時進行中的動作

同一句中的兩個動作若都是過去進行式,則表示這兩個動作同時發生。

例句:

  • My girlfriend was making dinner while I was studying. (我在唸書時,我女友正在做晚餐)
  • While Allen was surfing the Internet, Tim was watching television. (艾倫在上網時,提姆正在看電視)
  • Were you listening while he was talking? (他在講話時,你有在聽嗎?)
  • I wasn’t paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several mistakes. (我在寫信時不專心,所以有幾個地方寫錯)
  • Cindy wasn’t working, and I wasn’t working either. (辛蒂沒有在工作,我也沒有在工作)
  • They were eating dinner, gossiping, and having a good time. (他們一邊吃晚餐,一邊聊八卦,過得很愉快)

用法之四:氣氛 (atmosphere)

在英文中,我們經常使用一連串同時發生的動作來敘述過去某一特定時間的氣氛。

例句:

  • When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service. (當我走進辦公室時,有幾個人正忙著打字,有些人正在講電話,老闆正大吼大叫下達指示,而客戶正等著被服務。有個客戶對著一名秘書大聲小叫還比手劃腳。其他客戶則你一言我一語抱怨服務差)

用法之五:與 always 或 constantly 等字連用來表示過去某一令人厭煩、不悅、惱怒或驚訝的事情經常發生

當過去進行式與 always, constantly 或 forever 等字連用時,它是在表示過去某一令人厭煩、不悅、惱怒或驚訝的事情經常發生。注意:它的語意與 “used to” 非常相似,但卻是在表達負面的情緒。記得要將 always, constantly 或 forever 置於 BE 動詞和 V-ing 之間。

例句:

  • Kate was always coming to class late. (凱特上課老是遲到)
  • Henry was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone. (亨利老是嘰哩聒拉講個不停。他惹惱了每個人)
  • I didn’t like them because they were always complaining. (我不喜歡他們,因為他們老是抱怨東抱怨西的)

While vs. When

在過去動詞時態中,when 子句幾乎都使用過去簡單式,而 while 子句通常使用過去進行式。while 意為「當…的時候」,它與 when 的意思相近,但強調句子不同的部分。

例句:

  • I was studying when she called. (她來電時,我正在唸書)
  • While I was studying, she called. (我在唸書時,她打電話來)

切記非進行式動詞及若干混合動詞的非進行式用法

切記非進行式動詞不能用於任何進行式時態。再者,若干非進行式含意
的混合動詞亦不能用於進行式。對於這些不能用過去進行式的動詞,我們必須使用過去簡單式。

例句:

  • Anna was being at my house when you arrived. (當你到達時,安娜正在我家) (誤)
  • Anna was at my house when you arrived. (當你到達時,安娜正在我家) (正)

副詞的位置

always, usually, only, never, ever, still, just 等副詞通常位在 BE 動詞的後面。

例句:

  • I was still studying when she called. (她來電時,我還在唸書)
  • They were still eating dinner when Bill arrived. (比爾到達時,他們還在吃晚餐)

主動態/被動態

例句:

  • The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store. (小偷進入店裡時,店員正在為顧客服務) - 主動態
  • The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store. (小偷進入店裡時,顧客正在被店員服務) - 被動態

過去簡單式

型態

動詞 + ed 或不規則動詞

例句:

  • You called Mary. (你打電話給瑪麗)
  • Did you call Mary? (你有打電話給瑪麗嗎?)
  • You did not call Mary. (你沒有打電話給瑪麗)
  • Andy ate a lot of food. (安迪吃了許多食物)
  • Did Andy eat a lot of food? (安迪吃了許多食物嗎?)
  • Andy did not eat a lot of food. (安迪沒有吃許多食物)

用法之一:過去完成的動作

過去簡單式係用來表示開始於且結束於過去某一特定時間的動作。說話者有時可能不會確切提到這一特定時間,但他們心中卻有一個特定時間。

例句:

  • We saw a movie yesterday. (我們昨天看了一部電影)
  • They didn’t go to the concert yesterday. (他們昨天沒有去聽音樂會)
  • Last year I traveled to Japan. (去年我去了日本)
  • Last year I didn’t travel to Korea. (去年我沒有去韓國)
  • Did Sandy have dinner last night? (珊蒂昨晚有吃晚餐嗎?)
  • Mary washed her car. (瑪麗洗了她的車)
  • John didn’t wash his car. (約翰沒有洗他的車)

用法之二:一系列已完成的動作

我們可以使用過去簡單式來臚列一系列在過去完成的動作。這些動作依照它們發生的先後順序列出。

例句:

  • I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim. (我做完工作後走到海灘,發現一個游泳的好地方)
  • Irving arrived here from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00. (歐文 8 點從機場抵達這裡,9 點住進飯店,10 點與其餘的人會面)
  • Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs? (你有先加入麵粉,再倒入牛奶,然後加入雞蛋嗎?)

用法之三:過去發生之動作所持續的時間

過去簡單式可與過去發生之動作所持續的時間連用;這一持續的時間開始於過去,亦結束於過去。for ten minutes, for two weeks, all day, all year 等等,都是可與過去簡單式連用的時間副詞片語。

例句:

  • I lived in Indonesia for two years. (我在印尼住了兩年)
  • Fiona studied Japanese for five years. (費歐娜學了五年的日語)
  • They sat at the beach all day. (他們整天坐在海灘上)
  • We did not stay at the party the entire time. (我們並未全程都待在派對上)
  • They talked on the phone for thirty minutes. (他們講了三十分鐘的電話)
  • A: How long did you wait for them? (你等了他們多久?)
    B: We waited for one hour. (我們等了一小時)

用法之四:過去的習慣

過去簡單式亦可用來表示過去的習慣 (現在已不存在);它的意思與 “used to” 相當類似。為了清楚地表達這意思,我們在談論過去的習慣時,往往會加上 always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger等字句。

例句:

  • I studied Japanese when I was a child. (我小時候學日文)
  • Mary played the violin. (瑪麗拉小提琴)
  • Mary didn’t play the piano. (瑪麗不彈鋼琴)
  • Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid? (你小時候彈奏樂器嗎?)
  • She worked at the movie theater after school. (她放學後在那家電影院工作)
  • They never went to school; they always skipped class. (他們從不上學;他們總是蹺課)

用法之五:過去的事實或普遍性真理

過去簡單式亦可用來表示過去的事實或普遍性真理 (但現在已不存在);與用法四一樣,它的意思與 “used to” 相當類似。

例句:

  • Wendy was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing. (溫蒂小時候很害羞,但現在非常外向)
  • My brother didn’t like tomatoes before. (我弟弟以前不喜歡吃蕃茄)
  • Did you live in Taipei when you were a kid? (你小時候住台北嗎?)
  • People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past. (過去手機電話費比現在貴很多)

重點提示:When 子句的動作較早發生

當 when 子句的動詞與主要子句的動詞都是過去簡單式時,when 子句的動作較早發生,此時 when 相當於 after。舉例來說,Mary stood under a tree when it began to rain. 這句是說瑪麗站在樹下這個動作是發生在下雨之後 (她一定淋到雨);如果句子改成 When Mary stood under a tree, it began to rain.,那麼這是說瑪麗站在樹下之後,雨才開始下 (她沒有淋到雨 — 如果樹葉可以遮雨的話)。

例句:

  • When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question. (我付她一塊錢後,她回答我的問題)
  • She answered my question when I paid her one dollar. (我付她一塊錢後,她回答我的問題)

從上面的例句可知,當兩個子句的動詞都是過去簡單式時,when 子句無論置於主要子句之前或之後,其動作都比主要子句的動作還要早發生。所以,下句的意思與上句截然不同;它係表示她先回答我的問題,然後我再付她一塊錢。

例句:

  • I paid her one dollar when she answered my question. (她回答我的問題後,我付她一塊錢)

副詞的位置

always, usually, only, never, ever, still, just 等副詞通常位在普通動詞之前。

例句:

  • He just called Barbara. (他剛打電話給芭芭拉)
  • Did he just call Barbara? (他剛打電話給芭芭拉嗎?)

主動態/被動態

例句:

  • Tommy repaired the car. (湯米修理車子) - 主動態
  • The car was repaired by Tommy. (車子被湯米修理) - 被動態

現在完成進行式

句型

has/have + been + 現在分詞

例句:

  • They have been waiting here for two hours. (他們已在這裡等了兩小時)
  • Have they been waiting here for two hours? (他們已在這裡等了兩小時嗎?)
  • They have not been waiting here for two hours. (他們沒有在這裡等了兩小時)

用法之一:從過去持續到現在的時間

我們使用現在完成進行式來表示某事發生在過去且一直持續到現在。for ten minutes, for two weeks, since Thursday 等等,都是可與現在完成進行式連用的時間副詞片語。

例句:

  • They have been talking for the last 30 minutes. (他們已交談了三十分鐘)
  • Stella has been working at that company for four years. (史泰拉已在那家公司工作了四年)
  • What have you been doing for the last hour? (過去一小時來你都在做什麼呢?)
  • Howard has been teaching at the university since July. (自七月以來霍華德就在這所大學任教)
  • We have been waiting here for over two hours! (我們已在這裡等了超過兩小時!)
  • Why has Eric not been taking his medicine for the last three days? (過去三天來艾立克為何都沒有服藥呢?)

用法之二:最近性

我們亦可在沒有時間副詞片語的情況下使用現在完成進行式,此時它強調的是「最近性」,所以經常與 recently 或 lately 連用。進一步地說,現在完成進行式可以用來表示最近完成的動作產生現在的結果或對現在造成的影響。

例句:

  • She has been working hard recently. (她最近一直努力地工作)
  • Recently, I have been feeling really tired. (最近我一直覺得很累)
  • Hannah has been watching too much television lately. (漢娜近來看了太多的電視)
  • Have you been exercising lately? (你近來有在運動嗎?)
  • Robin has been feeling a little depressed. (羅蘋最近一直覺得有點沮喪)
  • Paul has not been practicing his English. (保羅最近沒有練習英文)
  • What have you been doing? (你最近都在做什麼呢?)
  • I have been working in the garden, and that’s why my hands are so dirty. (我一直在花園工作,那就是我的雙手很髒的原因) - 最近完成的動作產生現在的結果。

重點提示

切記現在完成進行式含有「最近,近來;不久前」(lately, recently) 的意思。如果我們在問句中使用現在完成進行式,如 “Have you been feeling alright?” (你的身體覺得還好吧?),這可能暗示此人現在看起來有病或不健康。所以,類似 “Have you been smoking?” (你不久前有抽菸嗎?) 這樣的問句,可能暗示你在此人身上聞到了菸味。總而言之,在問句中使用這種時態,係表示你可以看到、聞到、聽到或感覺到動作的結果,也就是最近完成的動作產生現在的結果或對現在造成的影響。因此,現在完成進行式若使用不當,可能會侮辱到別人。

切記非進行式動詞及若干混合動詞的非進行式用法

我們必須記住非進行式動詞及若干混合動詞的非進行式用法,它們不能用於任何進行式時態。換言之,這些動詞必須使用現在完成式,不可使用現在完成進行式。

例句:

  • Tom has been having his car for two years. (湯姆有車已經兩年了) (誤)
  • Tom has had his car for two years. (湯姆有車已經兩年了) (正)

副詞的位置

always, usually, only, never, ever, still, just 等副詞通常位在助動詞 have/has 的後面,即位在 have/has 和過去分詞之間。

例句:

  • They have only been waiting here for one hour. (他們只在這裡等了一小時)
  • Have they only been waiting here for one hour? (他們只在這裡等了一小時嗎?)

主動態/被動態

例句:

  • Recently, Jack has been doing the work. (最近傑克一直在做這項工作) - 主動態
  • Recently, the work has been being done by Jack. (最近這項工作一直被傑克所做) - 被動態

注意:從上面的例句可知,現在完成進行式的被動態句型顯得十分不自然,因此現在完成進行式鮮少使用被動態。