後接動名詞或不定詞的動詞 (意思相似)

beginRachel began singing. (瑞秋開始唱歌)Rachel began to sing. (瑞秋開始唱歌)

註:當 begin 為非進行式時態時,其後可以接動名詞或不定詞;若為進行式時態,則其後只能接不定詞,如 Rachel is beginning to sing.。
can't bearSandy can't bear being single. (桑迪無法忍受單身)Sandy can't bear to be single. (桑迪無法忍受單身)
can't standTeresa can't stand working the late shift. (泰瑞莎無法忍受上夜班)Teresa can't stand to work the late shift. (泰瑞莎無法忍受上夜班)
ceaseCindy had ceased caring what happened to him. (辛蒂已不再關心他發生什麼事了)Cindy had ceased to care what happened to him. (辛蒂已不再關心他發生什麼事了)
continueJohn continued crying. (約翰繼續哭)John continued to cry. (約翰繼續哭)
hateMy wife hates doing the dishes. (我太太討厭洗碗)My wife hates to do the dishes. (我太太討厭洗碗)
likeI like reading. (我喜歡閱讀)I like to read. (我喜歡閱讀)
loveFrank loves skateboarding. (法蘭克喜歡溜滑板)Frank loves to skateboard. (法蘭克喜歡溜滑板)
neglectHe had neglected informing us that he would move to Taipei. (他疏忽沒有通知我們他將搬去台北)He had neglected to inform us that he would move to Taipei. (他疏忽沒有通知我們他將搬去台北)
preferThey prefer having dinner at 7 PM. (他們較喜歡七點吃晚飯)They prefer to have dinner at 7 PM. (他們較喜歡七點吃晚飯)
proposeHow do you propose explaining your delay? (你打算如何解釋你的延誤?)How do you propose to explain your delay? (你打算如何解釋你的延誤?)
startNeil started learning English when he was five. (尼爾五歲開始學英文)Neil started to learn English when he was five. (尼爾五歲開始學英文)

註:當 start 為非進行式時態時,其後可以接動名詞或不定詞;若為進行式時態,則其後只能接不定詞,如 Rachel is starting to sing.。

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後接動名詞或不定詞的動詞 (意思不同)

dread Mary dreaded going back to work. (瑪麗害怕回去工作)
Dread 通常後接動名詞。
I dread to think of the consequences of these actions. (我不敢想這些行動的後果)
Dread 有時跟 think 或 consider 的不定詞連用,意為「不敢想」,經常用於口語中。
forget I forgot taking my medicine. (我忘了已吃過藥)
Forget 後接動名詞時意為「忘記做過某事」。
I forgot to take my medicine. (我忘了吃藥)
Forget 後接不定詞時意為「忘了去做某事」。
need This fence needs fixing. (這個柵欄需要修理)
Need 後接動名詞時帶有被動的意思。上句亦可寫成 “This fence needs to be fixed.”。
I need to buy a coffee. (我需要買杯咖啡)
I need him to buy a coffee. (我需要他去買杯咖啡)
Need 通常後接不定詞或受詞 + 不定詞。
regret I deeply regretted losing my temper. (我為自己發了脾氣而深感後悔)
Regret 通常後接動名詞,意為「對已做過的事 (感到) 遺憾、後悔」。
We regret to inform you that your contract will not be renewed. (我們很遺憾地通知你,你的合約將不能續簽)
Regret 有時跟 inform, tell, say 等動詞的不定詞連用,即 regret to inform/tell/say,表示遺憾地通知/告訴/說 (壞消息),亦即對要做 (而尚未做) 的事遺憾。
remember I vividly remember meeting her in Taipei once. (我清楚地記得曾在台北見過她一次)
Remember 後接動名詞時意為「記得做過某事」。
Paul remembered to turn off the lights and close the windows before he left. (保羅記得離開之前關燈和關窗戶)
Remember 後接不定詞時意為「記得去做某事」。
stop I stopped smoking for health reasons. (我基於健康因素戒菸了)
Stop 通常後接動名詞,意為「停止做某事」。
I stopped to smoke. (我停下來去抽菸)
Stop 後接不定詞時意為「停下來去做某事」。上句意為我停下手邊任何工作而去抽菸。
try I’m going to try growing my own vegetables. (我將嘗試自己種蔬菜吃)
Try 後接動名詞時意為「嘗試、試著做某事 (看看會有什麼效果或結果);做某事試試 (看看會有什麼效果或結果)」。
Amy tried eating the frog soup. (艾美嘗試吃青蛙湯)
上句相當於 She ate the frog soup, but she really didn’t like it or didn’t want to eat it again. (艾美吃了青蛙湯,但她真的不喜歡或不想再吃這種湯)
I’m going to try to grow my own vegetables. (我將設法自己種蔬菜吃)
Try 後接不定詞時意為「努力、設法或試圖做某事)」。
當 “try to do” 用於過去式時,係表示做某事沒有成功。
Amy tried to eat the frog soup. (艾美試圖吃青蛙湯)
上句相當於 She tried to eat the frog soup, but she couldn’t. (艾美試圖吃青蛙湯,但她沒有吃)

後接受詞 + 不定詞的動詞

動詞 + 受詞 + 不定詞的句型有兩種情況,第一種情況為受詞 (名詞或受格代名詞) 是必要的,而第二種情況為受詞是選擇性的,可有可無。就第一種情況的動詞 + 受詞 + 不定詞句型而言,動詞部分包括亦可接動名詞當受詞的 advise, allow, encourage, permit, require, urge 等。


受詞為必要的動詞 + 受詞 + 不定詞句型

advise

I advised John to study abroad. (我建議約翰出國唸書)

allow

The manager doesn’t allow us to speak aloud. (經理不允許我們講話太大聲)

cause

The divorce caused him to begin abusing alcohol. (離婚使他開始酗酒)

convince

I convinced him to marry his daughter to my son. (我說服他把他女兒嫁給我兒子)

enable

Money from his father-in-law enabled Jason to buy the house. (岳父給傑森的錢使他有能力買下這棟房子)

encourage

Amy encouraged me to study abroad. (艾美鼓勵我出國留學)

force

I force myself to do exercise every day. (我強迫自己每天做運動)

get (使役動詞)

I couldn’t get them to understand what I was saying. (我沒辦法讓他們理解我說的事情)

hire

Paul hired a private detective to trace his wife. (保羅雇用一名私家偵探跟蹤他太太)

invite

Cindy invited all of us to take part in her birthday party. (辛蒂邀請我們所有人參加她的生日派對)

order

The police ordered the suspect to put his hands in the air. (警察命令嫌犯舉起雙手)

permit

Sarah won’t probably permit you to stay overnight at her house. (莎拉大概不會允許你在她家過夜)

remind

The professor reminded us to hand in our reports on time. (教授提醒我們準時交報告)

require

The agreement requires all parties to renounce the war of words. (協議要求所有黨派放棄口水戰)

tell

The teacher told us to shut up. (老師叫我們閉嘴)

urge

The mayor urges the citizens to recycle bottles and paper. (市長呼籲市民回收瓶子和廢紙)

warn

Richard warned his wife not to eat too much. (理查告誡他太太別吃太多)

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動名詞與不定詞 – 高級篇

13. 若干動詞後面可接動名詞或不定詞,但意思不同。

例句:

  • Charlotte remembered getting divorced. (夏洛特記得已經離婚) - remember 接動名詞表示記得做過某事 (事情已做過)。
  • Vincent remembered to prepare dinner. (文森特記得要準備晚餐) - remember 接不定詞表示記得去做某事 (事情還未做)。

14. 若干動詞後面可接動名詞或不定詞,意思並無太大差異或意思相似。

例句:

  • Iris likes swimming. (愛麗絲喜歡游泳)
  • Iris likes to swim. (愛麗絲喜歡游泳)

雖然這些特定動詞接動名詞和不定詞的意思差異甚小,而且動名詞和不定詞往往可以互換使用,但含意仍有不同。使用動名詞係表示你是指實際的活動或經驗,而使用不定詞係表示你談的是潛在或可能的活動或經驗。由於這項含意上的小差異,動名詞和不定詞並非每次都可以互換,如下面的例句所示。

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動名詞與不定詞 – 中級篇

7. 動名詞可以用且經常用 your, his, her, its, our, their, John’s, Mary’s, the computer’s 等所有格來修飾,這可更明確地指出動作的執行者。

例句:

  • I enjoyed their dancing. (我喜歡他們的舞蹈 - 是他們在跳舞)
  • Amanda understood Lance’s saying no to the offer. (阿曼達理解蘭斯拒絕這項提議 - 是蘭斯拒絕提議)
  • Mr. Wang complained about Maria’s coming to class late. (王老師抱怨瑪麗亞上課遲到 - 是瑪麗亞上課遲到)
  • Simon resented our coming late to the dinner. (賽蒙不滿我們晚餐遲到 - 是我們遲到)
  • They discussed the computer’s being broken. (他們討論了電腦被弄壞的事情 - 是電腦被弄壞)

然而,在非正式情況中,吾人往往使用受格而不用所有格。例如:

  • Mr. Wang complained about Maria coming to class late.
  • Simon resented us coming late to the dinner.

此外,以 Mr. Wang complained about Maria’s coming to class late. 這句為例,由於 coming to class late 發生在 Mr. Wang complained 之前,所以亦可使用完成式動名詞 (perfect gerund):Mr. Wang complained about Maria’s having come to class late.

8. 若干動詞後接名詞 + 不定詞。在某些情況中,名詞是必要的,但在其他情況中,則是選擇性的,可有可無。

例句:

  • The platoon commander ordered his soldiers to fire. (排長下令士兵開火) - 名詞是必要的。
  • The teacher asked to leave the classroom. (老師要求離開教室) - 名詞可有可無。
  • The teacher asked Gary to leave the classroom. (老師要求蓋瑞離開教室) - 名詞可有可無。

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動名詞與不定詞 – 初級篇

1. 動名詞 (gerund) 是由動詞加 “-ing” 所形成的名詞。動詞 eat 的動名詞為 eating。動名詞在句子中可用作主詞、受詞或補語。動名詞當主詞時,接單數動詞。

例句:

  • Smoking damages your lungs. (抽菸會破壞你的肺) - 主詞。
  • You should quit smoking. (你應該戒菸) - 受詞。
  • Her favorite hobby is smoking. (她最喜歡的嗜好是抽菸) - 補語。

動名詞可以在其前加上 not 來變成否定。

例句:

  • I enjoy not working in cold weather. (我喜歡天冷不用上班)
  • The best thing for your health is not smoking. (對你健康最有益的事就是不抽菸)

2. 不定詞 (infinitive) 是帶 “to” 的動詞。動詞 read 的不定詞為 to read。不定詞在句子中也可用作主詞、受詞或補語。不定詞當主詞時,也是接單數動詞。

例句:

  • To read helps you learn English. (閱讀有助於你學習英文) - 主詞。
  • John wants to read. (約翰想要閱讀) - 受詞。
  • The most important learning method is to read. (最重要的學習方法就是閱讀) - 補語。

不定詞可以在其前加上 not 來變成否定。

例句:

  • Helen decided not to marry. (海倫決定不結婚了)
  • The most important thing is not to eat too much. (最重要的事就是別吃太多)

3. 雖然動名詞和不定詞在句中皆可用作主詞或補語,但在口語中,動名詞聽起來會比較正常、自然,而不定詞聽起來則比較抽象。在下面的例句中,動名詞聽起來比較自然,所以在日常生活中比較常用或常見。不定詞強調的是某事的可能性,聽起來比較抽象。如果讀者一時之間還搞不太懂上面的說明,那也沒關係,只要記住一件事就好:90% 的場合或時機都是使用動名詞當主詞或補語。

例句:

  • Reading is important. (閱讀很重要) - 正常的主詞。
  • To read is important. (閱讀很重要) - 抽象的主詞,比較少用或少見。
  • The most important learning method is reading. (最重要的學習方法就是閱讀) - 正常的補語。
  • The most important learning method is to read. (最重要的學習方法就是閱讀) - 抽象的補語,比較少用或少見。

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