動名詞與不定詞 – 高級篇

13. 若干動詞後面可接動名詞或不定詞,但意思不同。

例句:

  • Charlotte remembered getting divorced. (夏洛特記得已經離婚) - remember 接動名詞表示記得做過某事 (事情已做過)。
  • Vincent remembered to prepare dinner. (文森特記得要準備晚餐) - remember 接不定詞表示記得去做某事 (事情還未做)。

14. 若干動詞後面可接動名詞或不定詞,意思並無太大差異或意思相似。

例句:

  • Iris likes swimming. (愛麗絲喜歡游泳)
  • Iris likes to swim. (愛麗絲喜歡游泳)

雖然這些特定動詞接動名詞和不定詞的意思差異甚小,而且動名詞和不定詞往往可以互換使用,但含意仍有不同。使用動名詞係表示你是指實際的活動或經驗,而使用不定詞係表示你談的是潛在或可能的活動或經驗。由於這項含意上的小差異,動名詞和不定詞並非每次都可以互換,如下面的例句所示。

例句:

  • The Korean journalist likes living in London. (這位韓國新聞記者喜歡住在倫敦) - 他現在就住在倫敦;他喜歡在當地所經歷的事情。
  • The Korean journalist likes to live in London whenever he works in the United Kingdom. (這位韓國新聞記者每當在英國工作時都喜歡住在倫敦) - 當他在英國工作時,他喜歡選擇住在倫敦或喜歡住在倫敦的可能性。
  • I like speaking Spanish because it’s such a beautiful language. (我喜歡說西班牙語,因為它是一種優美的語言) - 我喜歡說西班牙語的經驗以及說西班牙語時的那種感覺。
  • I like to speak Spanish when I’m in Spain. (當我在西班牙時,我喜歡說西班牙語) - 當我在西班牙時,我比較喜歡選擇說西班牙語。

15. 有許多「be + 形容詞」的組合,通常後接不定詞。

例句:

  • Susan was eager to tell her story. (蘇珊急於訴說她的故事)
  • He’d be happy to take me in his car. (他很樂意開車送我去)
  • I am lucky to have such a beautiful girlfriend. (我很幸運有這樣一位漂亮的女友)

16. 英文中亦有許多名詞,通常後接不定詞。

例句:

  • His wife’s decision to leave him is fully understood. (他太太離開他的決定,完全可以理解)
  • His ex-wife had expressed a wish to see the children. (他的前妻已表達要見小孩的願望)
  • I have no desire to see you hurt. (我不想看見你受到傷害)

17. 不定詞有時是用來表示「為了做某事」的概念。

例句:

  • John bought the English dictionary to look up difficult words. (約翰為了查難字而買了這本英語字典)
  • Elton sold his house to get the money that he needed. (艾爾頓為了籌得他需要的錢而賣掉房子)
  • Grace uses Englishhome.org to learn English. (葛蕾絲為了學英文而上 Englishhome.org 網站)

英文有許多句型都含有這種表示「為了做某事」概念的不定詞,只是由於這些句型大都有固定意思,不定詞的真正含意反而未受到重視或未被充分探討。
句型 1:too + 形容詞/副詞 + 不定詞 (too … to … 意為「太 … 而不能」)

例句:

  • The box is too heavy to carry. (箱子太重搬不動)
  • The weather is too hot to work. (天氣太熱無法工作)
  • John ran too slowly to win the race. (約翰跑太慢而未贏得比賽)
  • The child is too young to go to school. (這個小孩年紀太小,還不能上學)
  • They arrived too late to see the beginning of the movie. (他們太晚到而沒有看到電影的開頭)

句型 2:形容詞/副詞 + enough + 不定詞

例句:

  • Linda is tall enough to reach the book on the shelf. (琳達夠高,可以拿到書架上的書)
  • Robert was smart enough to enter college at the age of 11. (羅伯特夠聰明,所以 11 歲就唸大學)
  • John ran quickly enough to win the race. (約翰跑得夠快而贏得比賽)

句型 3:enough + 名詞 + 不定詞

例句:

  • I have enough money to buy my own car. (我有足夠的錢來買自己的車)
  • Fiona owns enough books to start her own library! (費歐娜有足夠的書來創辦自己的圖書館!)
  • Jack needs enough time to finish writing his novel. (傑克需要足夠的時間來完成他的小說)

18. 某些字詞後接動名詞。

例句:

  • Six months after the accident, Paul still has difficulty walking. (事故發生六個月後,保羅走路仍有困難)
  • My father has great fun fishing. (我父親釣魚釣得不亦樂乎)
  • Gary always wastes his time playing online games. (蓋瑞總是把他的時間浪費在玩線上遊戲)

19. 表示地點的動詞通常後接動名詞。這種句型為「地點動詞 + 地點 + 動名詞」。

例句:

  • Amy stood at the corner waiting for Anthony. (艾美站在角落等候安東尼)
  • Barry always sits on the couch watching TV. (貝瑞老是坐在沙發上看電視)
  • Tom was lying in bed smoking a cigarette. (湯姆正躺在床上抽菸)

20. 除了簡單動名詞和不定詞外,英文還有進行式動名詞和不定詞、被動動名詞和不定詞、完成式動名詞和不定詞以及這些型態的組合。進行式型態用來強調動作正在發生中。被動態用來強調句子的主詞接受動作。完成式動名詞和不定詞型態則用來強調過去和未來動作的完成。請研讀下面的例句以瞭解這些觀念。

簡單動名詞和不定詞

  • The teacher enjoys teaching. (這位老師喜歡教課)
  • The teacher wants to teach. (這位老師想要教課)

進行式動名詞和不定詞

  • Mr. Chen is really enjoying teaching his class. (陳老師非常喜歡教他的班級) - 這看起來跟上面的簡單動名詞一樣。
  • Mr. Chen would like to be teaching his class. (陳老師想要教他的班級)

被動動名詞和不定詞

  • The students enjoy being taught. (這些學生喜歡被教)
  • The students want to be taught. (這些學生想要被教)

完成式動名詞和不定詞

  • The retired teacher recalled having taught. (這位退休老師記得教過書)
  • The teacher was expecting to have taught those chapters already. (這位老師認為已教過那些章節)

被動 + 進行式動名詞和不定詞

  • The students are enjoying being taught by such an interesting new teacher. (這些學生喜歡被這樣一位有趣的新老師教) - 這看起來跟上面的被動動名詞一樣。
  • The students would like to be being taught by Mr. Chen. (這些學生想要被陳老師教)

被動 + 完成式動名詞和不定詞

  • The students recalled having been taught those chapters already. (這些學生記得已被教過那些章節)
  • The students were expecting to have been taught those chapters by now. (這些學生認為已被教過那些章節)
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