Replace, substitute (vv.)

Replace 意為「取代,代替;更換,替換」,而 substitute 意為「取代;代替」,但這兩者並非同義詞,因為它們的用法並不相同。replace 僅當及物動詞用,而 substitute 則可當及物和不及物動詞,如 He’ll have to replace those tires; they’re badly worn. (他必須更換那些輪胎;它們磨損得太厲害了);George has replaced John as captain of the team. (喬治接替約翰當了隊長);Susan is ill and Laura is to substitute her. (蘇珊病了,羅拉將代替她);George has substituted as captain of the team. (喬治代任隊長)。

這兩個動詞最大的差異在於其後所接的介系詞,replace 後面可接 with 或 by (尤其是在被動態中),而 substitute 都是接 for,如 We’ve replaced old calculators with/by computers. (我們已用電腦取代了舊式的計算機);Her photograph was replaced by his painting. (她的照片被他的畫取代了);Home-made parts are being substituted for imported ones. (國產零件取代進口零件)。

必須注意的是,許多人搞不清楚這兩個字在上下文中的替代關係:to replace A with/by B 意為「用 B 來替換 A」,亦即 A 被 B 所取代,而 to substitute A for B (or A be substituted for B) 意為「用 A 來替換 B」,亦即 B 被 A 所取代。例如:

I replaced her photograph with/by his painting. (我用他的畫代替她的照片)。
= I substituted his painting for her photograph.
= Her photograph was replaced by his painting.
= His painting replaced her photograph.
= His painting was substituted for her photograph.

儘管目前 substitute 被用來代替 replace 的情況有越來越多的趨勢,但謹慎的人士仍堅守並維持它們之間的不同。